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We estimate the welfare associated with the Medicare HMO program, now known as Medicare+Choice (M+C). We find that the creation of the M+C program resulted in approximately $15.6 billion in consumer surplus and $52 billion in profits from 1993 to 2000 (in 2000 dollars). This program most likely generated significant net social welfare. However, we find that(More)
AIM To investigate the efficacy and safety of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from seal oils for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with hyperlipidemia. METHODS One hundred and forty-four patients with NAFLD associated with hyperlipidemia were included in the 24-wk, randomized, controlled trial. The patients were(More)
In the past three decades China has been going through a period of rapid economic growth, which has had profound repercussions for the nation's public health system. Prior to the current health reforms much of the population was left uninsured and facing high financial risk from inadequate healthcare, with especially deep divisions between the urban and(More)
The fear responses to environmental threats play a fundamental role in survival. Little is known about the neural circuits specifically processing threat-relevant sensory information in the mammalian brain. We identified parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) excitatory projection neurons in mouse superior colliculus (SC) as a key neuronal subtype for detecting(More)
The pathogenesis of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is complex and involves multiple signal transduction processes. It is believed that p38MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) is one of the most kinases in inflammatory signaling. At present study, we demonstrated the role of p38MAPK in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Lidocaine has been reported to attenuate the inflammatory response in addition to its anesthetic activity, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to determine if lidocaine prior to endotoxemia diminishes pulmonary dysfunction by blocking the NF-kappaB activation. METHODS Rats were assigned to:(More)
Nur77 is an orphan receptor. Although Nur77 affects cell proliferation and apoptosis through its capability of binding to a variety of response elements and regulating their transactivation activities, the intrinsic function of Nur77 is not yet fully understood; in particular, its regulation of apoptosis and proliferation has been characterized as cell(More)
Resolving the national debate on the affordability of health care is likely to turn, at least in part, on the question of how consumer demand for health insurance and health care services responds to changes in price or income. Estimates of responsiveness—measured as price and income elasticities—are often used to develop and analyze proposals to expand(More)
OBJECTIVE The present study is to investigate the analgesic roles of L-THP in rats with bone cancer pain caused by tumor cell implantation (TCI). METHODS Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were measured at different time points before and after operation. L-THP (20, 40, and 60 mg/kg) were administrated intragastrically at early phase of(More)
The liver is crucial for systemic inflammation in cancer cachexia. Previous studies have shown that L-carnitine, as the key regulator of lipid metabolism, exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in several diseases, and ameliorates the symptoms of cachexia by regulating the expression and activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) in the liver. However,(More)