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We estimate the welfare associated with the Medicare HMO program, now known as Medicare+Choice (M+C). We find that the creation of the M+C program resulted in approximately $15.6 billion in consumer surplus and $52 billion in profits from 1993 to 2000 (in 2000 dollars). This program most likely generated significant net social welfare. However, we find that(More)
AIM To investigate the efficacy and safety of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from seal oils for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with hyperlipidemia. METHODS One hundred and forty-four patients with NAFLD associated with hyperlipidemia were included in the 24-wk, randomized, controlled trial. The patients were(More)
The pathogenesis of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is complex and involves multiple signal transduction processes. It is believed that p38MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) is one of the most kinases in inflammatory signaling. At present study, we demonstrated the role of p38MAPK in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute(More)
Treating neuropathic pain is a major clinical challenge, and the underlying mechanisms of neuropathic pain remain elusive. We hypothesized that neuropathic pain-inducing nerve injury may elicit neuronal alterations that recapitulate events that occur during development. Here, we report that WNT signaling, which is important in developmental processes of the(More)
The fear responses to environmental threats play a fundamental role in survival. Little is known about the neural circuits specifically processing threat-relevant sensory information in the mammalian brain. We identified parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) excitatory projection neurons in mouse superior colliculus (SC) as a key neuronal subtype for detecting(More)
Resolving the national debate on the affordability of health care is likely to turn, at least in part, on the question of how consumer demand for health insurance and health care services responds to changes in price or income. Estimates of responsiveness—measured as price and income elasticities—are often used to develop and analyze proposals to expand(More)
OBJECTIVE Normal tissues, including the central nervous system, tolerate single exposures to narrow planes of synchrotron-generated x-rays (microplanar beams; microbeams) up to several hundred Gy. The repairs apparently involve the microvasculature and the glial system. We evaluate a hypothesis on the involvement of bystander effects in these repairs. (More)
The prognosis of advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients remains dismal, and a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is critical for identifying effective targets with therapeutic potential to improve the survival of patients with OSCC. This study aims to clarify the clinical and biological significance of metastasis-associated(More)
PURPOSE To explore the effects of Icaritin on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells and underlying mechanisms. METHOD CML cells were incubated with various concentration of Icaritin for 48 hours, the cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT and the apoptosis was assessed with Annexin V and Hoechst 33258 staining. Cell hemoglobinization was determined.(More)
Although nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with insulin resistance partly due to reduced levels of circulating adiponectin, the role of adiponectin receptors including adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 in adipose tissues in NASH remains controversial. The present study showed that there was a marked decline in adiponectin(More)