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Since the prevalence of bovine norovirus (BNoV) and their genetic diversity have only been reported in the USA, England, Germany and The Netherlands, this study examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of BNoVs in diarrheic calves in South Korea using 645 diarrheic fecal specimens from calves by RT-PCR and nested PCR assays. Overall, 9.3% of the(More)
Porcine group A rotavirus (GARV) is considered to be an important animal pathogen due to their economic impact in the swine industry and its potential to cause heterologous infections in humans. This study examined 475 fecal samples from 143 farms located in 6 provinces across South Korea. RT-PCR and nested PCR utilizing primer pairs specific for the GARV(More)
The endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses in Asia has led to the generation of reassortant H5 strains with novel gene constellations. A newly emerged HPAI A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks in the Republic of Korea in 2014. Because newly emerging high-pathogenicity H5 viruses continue to pose public health risks, it is(More)
Group C rotaviruses (GCRVs) cause acute diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide and the evidence for a possible zoonotic role of GCRVs has been recently provided. However, there is little evidence of porcine GCRV infections or of their genetic diversity in South Korea. We examined 137 diarrheic fecal specimens from 55 farms collected from six provinces.(More)
Group A rotaviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children as well as many domestic animals. The rotavirus genome is composed of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA and can undergo genetic reassortment during mixed infections, leading to progeny viruses with novel or atypical phenotypes. The aim of this study was to determine if the(More)
The unclassified bovine enteric calicivirus (BEC) is a new bovine enteric calicivirus that is different from bovine norovirus, and causes diarrhea and pathologies in the small intestine of calves. This virus includes Nebraska (NB)- and Newbury agent 1 (NA1)-like strains. The prevalence of this BEC and its genetic characterization has only been reported in(More)
As part of our ongoing effort to develop influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors from various medicinal plants, we utilized bioassay-guided fractionation to isolated six alkylated chalcones (1-6) from Angelica keiskei. Xanthokeistal A (1) emerged as new compound containing the rare alkyl substitution, 6,6-dimethoxy-3-methylhex-2-enyl. When we tested(More)
Neurotransmitter release is modulated in an activity-dependent manner. We showed previously that repetitive stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) induced activity-dependent potentiation (ADP) of large dense-core vesicle (LDCV) exocytosis in chromaffin cells. Here we report that protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon is critically involved in ADP.(More)
We isolated 18 polyphenols with neuraminidase inhibitory activity from methanol extracts of the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. These polyphenols consisted of four chalcones (1-4), nine flavonoids (5-13), four coumarins (14-17), and one phenylbenzofuran (18). When we tested the effects of these individual compounds and analogs thereof on neuraminidase(More)
Resveratrol (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin that belongs to a family of naturally occurring stilbenes. It has been reported that the health-promoting activities of certain methylated resveratrol derivatives are more effective than those of unmodified resveratrol. In this study, we isolated two candidate genes with resveratrol(More)