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The endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses in Asia has led to the generation of reassortant H5 strains with novel gene constellations. A newly emerged HPAI A(H5N8) virus caused poultry outbreaks in the Republic of Korea in 2014. Because newly emerging high-pathogenicity H5 viruses continue to pose public health risks, it is(More)
Neurotransmitter release is modulated in an activity-dependent manner. We showed previously that repetitive stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) induced activity-dependent potentiation (ADP) of large dense-core vesicle (LDCV) exocytosis in chromaffin cells. Here we report that protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon is critically involved in ADP.(More)
Dental follicle cells (DFCs) differentiate into cementoblasts or osteoblasts under appropriate triggering. However, the mechanism(s) for osteogenic differentiation of DFCs are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of dental papilla-derived human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) on osteogenic differentiation of human DFCs (hDFCs) in(More)
The significant increase in life expectancy is closely related to the growing interest in the impact of aging on the function and appearance of the skin. Skin aging is influenced by several factors, and solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is considered one of the most important causes of skin photoaging. The aim of this study was to examine the(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major constituent of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria that serves as a barrier against harmful molecules, including antibiotics. The waaYZ locus that encodes the LPS core biosynthetic function in Escherichia coli was found to be induced strongly by superoxide generators but not by H(2)O(2), ethanol, or heat shock.(More)
BACKGROUND Alpinia katsumadai (AK) extracts and fractions were tested for in vitro antiviral activities against influenza virus type A, specially human A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and avian A/Chicken/Korea/MS96/96 (H9N2), by means of time-of-addition experiments; pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment, and post treatment. RESULTS In pre-treatment assay, the AK(More)
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are aggressive sarcomas that develop in about 10% of patients with the genetic disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Molecular alterations contributing to MPNST formation have only partially been resolved. Here we examined the role of Pten, a key regulator of the Pi3k/Akt/mTOR pathway, in human MPNST and(More)