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Side population (SP) and ABC transporter expression enrich for stem cells in numerous tissues. We explored if this phenotype characterised human bladder cancer stem cells (CSCs) and attempted to identify regulatory mechanisms. Focusing on non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), multiple human cell lines were used to characterise SP and ABC transporter(More)
BACKGROUND Primary culture and animal and cell-line models of prostate and bladder development have limitations in describing human biology, and novel strategies that describe the full spectrum of differentiation from foetal through to ageing tissue are required. Recent advances in biology demonstrate that direct reprogramming of somatic cells into(More)
Stem cells are thought to be the cell of origin in malignant transformation in many tissues, but their role in human prostate carcinogenesis continues to be debated. One of the conflicts with this model is that cancer stem cells have been described to lack androgen receptor (AR) expression, which is of established importance in prostate cancer initiation(More)
Stem cells accumulate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations resulting in an observable respiratory chain defect in their progeny, allowing the mapping of stem cell fate. There is considerable uncertainty in prostate epithelial biology where both basal and luminal stem cells have been described, and in this study the clonal relationships within the human(More)
There is considerable interest in the use of multi-potent stem cells in kidney tissue regeneration. We studied if spermatogonial stem cells have the ability to undergo kidney differentiation. Spermatogonial stem cell differentiation was induced using in vitro and ex vivo co-culture techniques. Conditioned media from human kidney fibroblasts induced the(More)
BACKGROUND This study investigated whether the increase in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) typically seen during male urinary tract infection (UTI) is incidental or reflects an innate defence mechanism of the prostate. The protective roles of the whey-acid-motif-4-disulphide core (WFDC) proteins, secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and WFDC2,(More)
The lysine methyltransferase SETD6 modifies the histone variant H2AZ, a key component of nuclear receptor-dependent transcription. Herein, we report the identification of several factors that associate with SETD6 and are implicated in nuclear hormone receptor signaling. Specifically, SETD6 associates with the estrogen receptor α (ERα), histone deacetylase(More)
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by prevalent circulating tumour cells (CTCs), early metastasis and poor prognosis. We show that SCLC patients (37/38) have rare CTC subpopulations co-expressing vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) and cytokeratins consistent with vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a process whereby tumour cells form(More)
Castration resistant prostate cancer remains a major clinical burden and novel therapeutic options are urgently required to improve survival. Tasquinimod is an orally administered quinoline-3-carboxamide with potent antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic action that has shown promise in the treatment of advanced prostate cancers. This review explores both(More)
Functional networks play an important role in the analysis of biological processes and systems. The inference of these networks from high-throughput (-omics) data is an area of intense research. So far, the similarity-based inference paradigm (e.g. gene co-expression) has been the most popular approach. It assumes a functional relationship between genes(More)