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Mating and immunity are intimately linked to fitness. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, recent investigations into mate choice for immunity, tradeoffs between reproduction and immunity, and the relationships between post-mating processes and immune function have revealed that mating and immunity are also intimately linked to each other. Here, we focus(More)
Conflicts between females and males over reproductive decisions are common . In Drosophila, as in many other organisms, there is often a conflict over how often to mate. The mating frequency that maximizes male reproductive success is higher than that which maximizes female reproductive success . In addition, frequent mating reduces female lifespan and(More)
The interests of males and females over reproduction rarely coincide and conflicts between the sexes over mate choice, mating frequency, reproductive investment, and parental care are common in many taxa. In Drosophila melanogaster, the optimum mating frequency is higher for males than it is for females. Furthermore, females that mate at high frequencies(More)
The existence and evolutionary significance of sexual selection through sperm competition was first realized by Geoff Parker in a prescient and influential review published in 1970. Parker recognized that competition between males for fertilizations will continue after mating, if the sperm of two or more males overlap near the site of fertilization in(More)
Sexual conflict is predicted to generate more rapid reproductive isolation between larger populations. While there is some empirical support for this, the data are inconsistent and, additionally, there has been criticism of some of the evidence. Here we reanalyse two experimental-evolution datasets using an isolation index widely applied in the speciation(More)
Ejaculates are fundamental to fitness in sexually reproducing animals: males gain all their direct fitness via the ejaculate and females require ejaculates to reproduce. Both sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate (including parasperm, seminal proteins, water, and macromolecules) play vital roles in postcopulatory sexual selection and conflict,(More)
Male seminal fluid proteins induce a profound remodelling of behavioural, physiological and gene signalling pathways in females of many taxa, and typically cause elevated egg production and decreased sexual receptivity. In Drosophila melanogaster, these effects can be mediated by an ejaculate 'sex peptide' (SP), which, in addition, contributes significantly(More)
We assessed the extent to which traits related to ejaculate investment have evolved in lines of Drosophila melanogaster that had an evolutionary history of maintenance at biased sex ratios. Measures of ejaculate investment were made in males that had been maintained at male-biased (MB) and female-biased (FB) adult sex ratios, in which levels of sperm(More)
Seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) alter female behaviour and physiology and can mediate sexual conflict. In Drosophila melanogaster, a single Sfp, the sex peptide (SP), triggers remarkable post-mating responses in females, including altered fecundity, feeding, immunity and sexual receptivity. These effects can favour the evolutionary interests of males while(More)
Sex differences in ageing rates and lifespan are common in nature, and an enduring puzzle for evolutionary biology. One possibility is that sex-specific mortality rates may result from recessive deleterious alleles in 'unguarded' heterogametic X or Z sex chromosomes (the unguarded X hypothesis). Empirical evidence for this is, however, limited. Here, we(More)