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Tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition is typically generated by delta subunit-containing extrasynaptic receptors. Because the delta subunit is highly expressed in the thalamus, we tested whether thalamocortical (TC) neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and ventrobasal complex exhibit tonic inhibition. Focal application of gabazine(More)
The slow (<1 Hz) rhythm, the most important electroencephalogram (EEG) signature of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, is generally viewed as originating exclusively from neocortical networks. Here we argue that the full manifestation of this fundamental sleep oscillation in a corticothalamic module requires the dynamic interaction of three cardinal(More)
The slow (<1 Hz) oscillation, with its alternating 'up' and 'down' states in individual neurons, is a defining feature of the electroencephalogram (EEG) during slow-wave sleep (SWS). Although this oscillation is well preserved across mammalian species, its physiological role is unclear. Electrophysiological and computational evidence from the cortex and(More)
During deep sleep and anesthesia, the EEG of humans and animals exhibits a distinctive slow (<1 Hz) rhythm. In inhibitory neurons of the nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT), this rhythm is reflected as a slow (<1 Hz) oscillation of the membrane potential comprising stereotypical, recurring "up" and "down" states. Here we show that reducing the leak current(More)
All three forms of recombinant low voltage-activated T-type Ca(2)(+) channels (Ca(v)3.1, Ca(v)3.2 and Ca(v)3.3) exhibit a small, though clearly evident, window T-type Ca(2)(+) current (I(Twindow)) which is also present in native channels from different neuronal types. In thalamocortical (TC) and nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT) neurones, and possibly in(More)
An increasing number of EEG and resting state fMRI studies in both humans and animals indicate that spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in cerebral activity at <0.1 Hz (infra-slow oscillations, ISOs) represent a fundamental component of brain functioning, being known to correlate with faster neuronal ensemble oscillations, regulate behavioural(More)
In the absence of external stimuli, the mammalian brain continues to display a rich variety of spontaneous activity. Such activity is often highly stereotypical, is invariably rhythmic, and can occur with periodicities ranging from a few milliseconds to several minutes. Recently, there has been a particular resurgence of interest in fluctuations in brain(More)
During relaxed wakefulness, the human brain exhibits pronounced rhythmic electrical activity in the alpha frequency band (8-13 Hz). This activity consists of 3 main components: the classic occipital alpha rhythm, the Rolandic mu rhythm, and the so-called third rhythm. In recent years, the long-held belief that alpha rhythms are strongly influenced by the(More)
Several aspects of perception, particularly those pertaining to vision, are closely linked to the occipital alpha (alpha) rhythm. However, how the alpha rhythm relates to the activity of neurons that convey primary visual information is unknown. Here we show that in behaving cats, thalamocortical neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) that operate(More)
T-type Ca2+ channels play a number of different and pivotal roles in almost every type of neuronal oscillation expressed by thalamic neurones during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, including those underlying sleep theta waves, the K-complex and the slow (<1 Hz) sleep rhythm, sleep spindles and delta waves. In particular, the transient opening of T(More)