Stuart W. Hughes

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Tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition is typically generated by delta subunit-containing extrasynaptic receptors. Because the delta subunit is highly expressed in the thalamus, we tested whether thalamocortical (TC) neurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and ventrobasal complex exhibit tonic inhibition. Focal application of gabazine(More)
The slow (<1 Hz) rhythm, the most important electroencephalogram (EEG) signature of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, is generally viewed as originating exclusively from neocortical networks. Here we argue that the full manifestation of this fundamental sleep oscillation in a corticothalamic module requires the dynamic interaction of three cardinal(More)
The slow (<1 Hz) oscillation, with its alternating 'up' and 'down' states in individual neurons, is a defining feature of the electroencephalogram (EEG) during slow-wave sleep (SWS). Although this oscillation is well preserved across mammalian species, its physiological role is unclear. Electrophysiological and computational evidence from the cortex and(More)
During deep sleep and anesthesia, the EEG of humans and animals exhibits a distinctive slow (<1 Hz) rhythm. In inhibitory neurons of the nucleus reticularis thalami (NRT), this rhythm is reflected as a slow (<1 Hz) oscillation of the membrane potential comprising stereotypical, recurring "up" and "down" states. Here we show that reducing the leak current(More)
During relaxed wakefulness, the human brain exhibits pronounced rhythmic electrical activity in the alpha frequency band (8-13 Hz). This activity consists of 3 main components: the classic occipital alpha rhythm, the Rolandic mu rhythm, and the so-called third rhythm. In recent years, the long-held belief that alpha rhythms are strongly influenced by the(More)
In relaxed wakefulness, the EEG exhibits robust rhythms in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), which decelerate to theta (approximately 2-7 Hz) frequencies during early sleep. In animal models, these rhythms occur coherently with synchronized activity in the thalamus. However, the mechanisms of this thalamic activity are unknown. Here we show that, in slices of the(More)
The slow (<1 Hz) rhythm is a defining feature of the electroencephalogram during sleep. Since cortical circuits can generate this rhythm in isolation, it is assumed that the accompanying slow oscillation in thalamocortical (TC) neurons is largely a passive reflection of neocortical activity. Here we show, however, that by activating the metabotropic(More)
Several aspects of perception, particularly those pertaining to vision, are closely linked to the occipital alpha (alpha) rhythm. However, how the alpha rhythm relates to the activity of neurons that convey primary visual information is unknown. Here we show that in behaving cats, thalamocortical neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) that operate(More)
In the absence of external stimuli, the mammalian brain continues to display a rich variety of spontaneous activity. Such activity is often highly stereotypical, is invariably rhythmic, and can occur with periodicities ranging from a few milliseconds to several minutes. Recently, there has been a particular resurgence of interest in fluctuations in brain(More)
An increasing number of EEG and resting state fMRI studies in both humans and animals indicate that spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in cerebral activity at <0.1 Hz (infra-slow oscillations, ISOs) represent a fundamental component of brain functioning, being known to correlate with faster neuronal ensemble oscillations, regulate behavioural(More)