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Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition of increasing recognition and prevalence. In 2007, a consensus recommendation provided clinical and histopathologic guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of EoE; however, only a minority of physicians use the 2007 guidelines, which require fulfillment of both histologic and clinical(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The study and management of reflux esophagitis require an endoscopic classification system founded on esophageal lesions that can be reproducibly identified. The aim of this study was to investigate interobserver agreement for the identification of endoscopic lesions typical of reflux esophagitis. METHODS Paired comparisons of observers'(More)
Adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus has been increasing in incidence at a rapid rate for more than two decades. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 appears to play an important role in gastrointestinal carci-nogenesis, and COX-2 overexpression has been demonstrated both in esophageal adenocarcinomas and in the metaplastic epithelium of Bar-rett's esophagus.
Specialised columnar epithelium (SCE), a form of intestinal metaplasia usually found in Barrett's oesophagus, cannot be distinguished endoscopically from normal gastric epithelium. Endoscopists seldom obtain biopsy specimens from a normal-appearing gastro-oesophageal junction, and therefore short segments of SCE in this region may go unrecognised. We(More)
CONTEXT Hanahan and Weinberg proposed in 200 that carcinogenesis involves DNA changes that enable cells to:provide their own growth signals, ignore growth-inhibitory signals, avoid apoptosis, replicate without limit, sustain angiogenesis, and invade and proliferate in unnatural locations. The metaplastic cells of Barrett's oesophagus are predisposed to(More)
Metaplastic epithelial cells of Barrett's esophagus transformed by the combination of p53-knockdown and oncogenic Ras expression are known to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). When phosphorylated at tyrosine 705 (Tyr705), STAT3 functions as a nuclear transcription factor that can contribute to oncogenesis. STAT3(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been linked to neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus. Acid exposure has been shown both to activate the MAPK pathways and to increase COX-2 protein expression in Barrett's metaplasia, but it is not known whether these effects are interrelated. We hypothesized that acid-induced activation of the MAPK pathways mediates an(More)
To explore the involvement of NO in normal peristalsis, the effects of inhibitors of NO synthase, including N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on esophageal peristaltic contractions induced by diverse stimuli that may involve different neuronal circuits were studied. Studies were performed in opossums.(More)
Cancer-related inflammation recently has been proposed as a major physiological hallmark of malignancy. Some genetic alterations known to promote cellular proliferation and induce malignant transformation also may participate in an intrinsic inflammatory pathway that produces a cancer-promoting inflammatory microenvironment. Little is known about this(More)