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Traditionally, T cell epitope discovery requires considerable amounts of tedious, slow, and costly experimental work. During the last decade, prediction tools have emerged as essential tools allowing researchers to select a manageable list of epitope candidates to test from a larger peptide, protein, or even proteome. However, no current tools address the(More)
The association between HLA-B 2705 and the immune control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has previously been linked to the targeting of the HLA-B 2705-restricted Gag epitope KRWIILGLNK (KK10) by CD8(+) T cells. In order to better define the mechanisms of the HLA-B 2705 immune control of HIV, we first characterized the CD8(+) T-cell responses(More)
During infection, CD8(+) T cells initially expand then contract, leaving a small memory pool providing long lasting immunity. While it has been described that CD8(+) T cell memory formation becomes defective in old age, the cellular mechanism is largely unknown. Autophagy is a major cellular lysosomal degradation pathway of bulk material, and levels are(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS CD8 T cells are central to the control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) although the key features of a successful CD8 T cell response remain to be defined. In a cohort of Irish women infected by a single source, a strong association between viral clearance and the human lecucocyte (HLA)-A*03 allele has been described, and the aim of this study(More)
Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is an important animal model of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a β-Herpesvirus that infects the majority of the world's population and causes disease in neonates and immunocompromised adults. CD8(+) T cells are a major part of the immune response to MCMV and HCMV. Processing of peptides for presentation to CD8(+) T cells may be(More)
BACKGROUND Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a recently identified human virus that has been found in livers of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and in bone marrow of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). T cells are important in controlling viruses but may also contribute to disease pathogenesis. The interaction of PARV4 with(More)
It is clear that latent CMV can reactivate in immunocompetent individuals, but the mechanism triggering such reactivations remains unclear. Recent clinical data suggest that reactivation can be subverted by CMV-specific T-memory. We therefore monitored CMV-specific T cells in immunocompetent mice with latent mCMV after a known reactivation trigger (LPS).(More)
The development of the fluorescently labeled tetrameric MHC-peptide complex has enabled the direct visualization, quantification and phenotypic characterization of antigen-specific T cells using flow cytometry and has transformed our understanding of cellular immune responses. The combination of this technology with functional assays provides many new(More)
Cross-reactivity of murine and recently human CD8(+) T cells between different viral peptides, i.e., heterologous immunity, has been well characterized. However, the directionality and quality of these cross-reactions is critical in determining their biological importance. Herein we analyzed the response of human CD8(+) T cells that recognize both a(More)
The mechanisms regulating memory CD8(+) T cell function and homeostasis during aging are unclear. CD8(+) effector memory T cells that re-express CD45RA increase considerably in older humans and both aging and persistent CMV infection are independent factors in this process. We used MHC class I tetrameric complexes that were mutated in the CD8 binding domain(More)