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PURPOSE Team-based learning (TBL) has been successfully used in non-medical curricula, but its effectiveness in medical education has not been studied extensively. We evaluated the impact of TBL on the academic performance of Year 2 medical students at Wright State University by comparing this active learning strategy against a traditional method of(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of successive days of endurance exercise on select serum chemistry values in conditioned Alaskan sled dogs. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. ANIMALS 10 conditioned Alaskan sled dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs ran 160 km/d for 5 consecutive days. Serum was obtained prior to exercise and immediately after each exercise run;(More)
Goal is to investigate how delivery nozzle design influences the cooling rate of cryogen spray as used in skin laser treatments. Cryogen was sprayed through nozzles that consist of metal tubes with either a narrow or wide diameter and two different lengths. Fast-flashlamp photography showed that the wide nozzles, in particular the long wide one, produced a(More)
—Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) has been used for selective epidermal cooling of human skin during laser therapy of patients with port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. Unfortunately , current commercial CSC devices do not provide optimal cooling selectivity and, therefore, provide insufficient epidermal protection for some PWS patients. To assist in the(More)
PURPOSE Since team-based learning (TBL) was introduced as a medical education strategy in 2001, few studies have explored its impact on learning outcomes, particularly as measured by performance on examinations. Educators considering implementing TBL need evidence of its effectiveness. This study was conducted to determine whether student performance on(More)
Heat transfer rate at the skin-air interface is of critical importance for the benefits of cryogen spray cooling in combination with laser therapy of shallow subsurface skin lesions, such as port-wine stain birthmarks. With some cryogen spray devices, a layer of liquid cryogen builds up on the skin surface during the spurt, which may impair heat transfer(More)
Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to minimize the risk of epidermal damage in various laser dermatological procedures such as treatment of port wine stain birthmarks and hair removal. However, the spray characteristics and combination of CSC and heating (laser) to obtain optimal treatments have not yet been determined. The distance between the nozzle tip(More)
This paper addresses the issue of exact-test based statistical inference for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the presence of missing genotype data. Missing genotypes often are discarded when markers are tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which can lead to bias in the statistical inference about equilibrium. Single and multiple imputation can improve(More)
Port wine stain (PWS) is a congenital, progressive vascular malformation of human skin. Presently, all PWS patients are treated using single cryogen spurt and single laser pulse exposure (SCS-SLP), which does not produce complete lesion blanching in the vast majority of patients. In this study, the feasibility of applying multiple cryogen spurts(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamics of laser light attenuation during cryogen spray cooling (CSC). Two detection schemes were used to approximate collimated and diffuse light transmittance measurements of continuous-wave (λ = 594 nm) and pulsed (λ = 585 nm) laser light during application of short (20-100 ms duration) cryogen spurts on(More)