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PURPOSE Team-based learning (TBL) has been successfully used in non-medical curricula, but its effectiveness in medical education has not been studied extensively. We evaluated the impact of TBL on the academic performance of Year 2 medical students at Wright State University by comparing this active learning strategy against a traditional method of(More)
—Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) has been used for selective epidermal cooling of human skin during laser therapy of patients with port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. Unfortunately , current commercial CSC devices do not provide optimal cooling selectivity and, therefore, provide insufficient epidermal protection for some PWS patients. To assist in the(More)
Goal is to investigate how delivery nozzle design influences the cooling rate of cryogen spray as used in skin laser treatments. Cryogen was sprayed through nozzles that consist of metal tubes with either a narrow or wide diameter and two different lengths. Fast-flashlamp photography showed that the wide nozzles, in particular the long wide one, produced a(More)
Heat transfer rate at the skin-air interface is of critical importance for the benefits of cryogen spray cooling in combination with laser therapy of shallow subsurface skin lesions, such as port-wine stain birthmarks. With some cryogen spray devices, a layer of liquid cryogen builds up on the skin surface during the spurt, which may impair heat transfer(More)
  • George J. Caporaso, S. Sampayan, +12 authors K. Selenes
  • 2007
A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches(More)
Cryogen spray cooling is used to prevent epidermal thermal damage during port-wine stain laser therapy, despite the limited understanding of the fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer characteristics of cryogen sprays. In recent studies, it has been suggested that the heat flux through human skin could be increased by changing physical parameters(More)
Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to minimize the risk of epidermal damage in various laser dermatological procedures such as treatment of port wine stain birthmarks and hair removal. However, the spray characteristics and combination of CSC and heating (laser) to obtain optimal treatments have not yet been determined. The distance between the nozzle tip(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamics of laser light attenuation during cryogen spray cooling (CSC). Two detection schemes were used to approximate collimated and diffuse light transmittance measurements of continuous-wave (λ = 594 nm) and pulsed (λ = 585 nm) laser light during application of short (20-100 ms duration) cryogen spurts on(More)
Background and Objectives: Application of local vacuum pressure to human skin during laser irradiation results in less absorption in the epidermis and more light delivered to targeted vessels with an increased blood volume. The objective of the present numerical study is to assess the effect of applying local vacuum pressure on the temperatures of the(More)
The orally active microtubule-disrupting agent (S)-1-ethyl-3-(2-methoxy-4-(5-methyl-4-((1-(pyridin-3-yl)butyl)amino)pyrimidin-2-yl)phenyl)urea (CYT997), reported previously by us (Bioorg Med Chem Lett 19:4639-4642, 2009; Mol Cancer Ther 8:3036-3045, 2009), is potently cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cell lines in vitro and shows antitumor activity in vivo.(More)