Stuart Nelson

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—Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) has been used for selective epidermal cooling of human skin during laser therapy of patients with port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. Unfortunately , current commercial CSC devices do not provide optimal cooling selectivity and, therefore, provide insufficient epidermal protection for some PWS patients. To assist in the(More)
Goal is to investigate how delivery nozzle design influences the cooling rate of cryogen spray as used in skin laser treatments. Cryogen was sprayed through nozzles that consist of metal tubes with either a narrow or wide diameter and two different lengths. Fast-flashlamp photography showed that the wide nozzles, in particular the long wide one, produced a(More)
Heat transfer rate at the skin-air interface is of critical importance for the benefits of cryogen spray cooling in combination with laser therapy of shallow subsurface skin lesions, such as port-wine stain birthmarks. With some cryogen spray devices, a layer of liquid cryogen builds up on the skin surface during the spurt, which may impair heat transfer(More)
Cryogen spray cooling is used to prevent epidermal thermal damage during port-wine stain laser therapy, despite the limited understanding of the fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and heat transfer characteristics of cryogen sprays. In recent studies, it has been suggested that the heat flux through human skin could be increased by changing physical parameters(More)
Cryogen spray cooling (CSC) is used to minimize the risk of epidermal damage in various laser dermatological procedures such as treatment of port wine stain birthmarks and hair removal. However, the spray characteristics and combination of CSC and heating (laser) to obtain optimal treatments have not yet been determined. The distance between the nozzle tip(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamics of laser light attenuation during cryogen spray cooling (CSC). Two detection schemes were used to approximate collimated and diffuse light transmittance measurements of continuous-wave (λ = 594 nm) and pulsed (λ = 585 nm) laser light during application of short (20-100 ms duration) cryogen spurts on(More)
Background and Objectives: Application of local vacuum pressure to human skin during laser irradiation results in less absorption in the epidermis and more light delivered to targeted vessels with an increased blood volume. The objective of the present numerical study is to assess the effect of applying local vacuum pressure on the temperatures of the(More)
Port wine stain (PWS) is a congenital, progressive vascular malformation of human skin. Presently, all PWS patients are treated using single cryogen spurt and single laser pulse exposure (SCS-SLP), which does not produce complete lesion blanching in the vast majority of patients. In this study, the feasibility of applying multiple cryogen spurts(More)
BACKGROUND Many consumers join online communities focused on health. Online forums are a popular medium for the exchange of health information between consumers, so it is important to determine the accuracy and completeness of information posted to online forums. OBJECTIVE We compared the accuracy and completeness of information regarding the FDA-approved(More)
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) has an unusually long serum half-life in comparison to proteins of a similar size. It is well-known that this phenomenon is due to IgG's ability to bind the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in a pH-dependent manner. FcRn binding properties can vary among IgGs, resulting in altered in vivo half-lives, and therefore it would be beneficial to(More)