Stuart K Creton

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When grown in the presence of sunflower cell walls, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, an ubiquitous necrotrophic fungus, secretes several acid proteases including a non-aspartyl protease. The gene acp1, encoding an acid protease, has been cloned and sequenced. The intronless ORF encodes a preproprotein of 252 aa and a mature protein of 200 residues. In vitro(More)
The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission’s Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five(More)
The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), formed when meat containing food is cooked, induces cancer of the colon, prostate and mammary gland of rats, tumours that are strongly associated with a Western diet. After consumption of a meat meal, PhIP is rapidly absorbed, metabolised and bioactivated to DNA damaging species.(More)
Cell transformation assays (CTAs) have long been proposed as in vitro methods for the identification of potential chemical carcinogens. Despite showing good correlation with rodent bioassay data, concerns over the subjective nature of using morphological criteria for identifying transformed cells and a lack of understanding of the mechanistic basis of the(More)
The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), formed during the cooking of meat, induces tumors of the prostate, colon, and mammary gland when fed to rats. PhIP is readily absorbed and efficiently metabolized to a genotoxic derivative by CYP1 enzymes. Although metabolism and mutational potential of PhIP have previously been(More)
Evaluation of the safety of new chemicals and pharmaceuticals requires the combination of information from various sources (e.g. in vitro, in silico and in vivo) to provide an assessment of risk to human health and the environment. The authors have identified opportunities to maximize the predictivity of this information to humans while reducing animal use(More)
Formed during the cooking of meat, the heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4-5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is mutagenic and carcinogenic. Although the metabolism and mutational effects of PhIP are well defined, the early cellular and genomic events by which it can induce neoplastic transformation are not yet fully characterised. These early cellular(More)
During the cooking of meat, mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are formed, the most abundant of which, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4-5-b]pyridine (PhIP), induces tumors of the prostate, colon, and mammary gland in rats. Humans consuming cooked meat are exposed to PhIP on a daily basis, yet few studies have assessed the effects of PhIP at(More)
Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory(More)
While toxicokinetics has become an integral part of pharmaceutical safety assessment over the last two decades, its use in the chemical industry is relatively new. However, it is recognised as a potentially important tool in human health risk assessment and recent initiatives have advocated greater application of toxicokinetics as part of an improved(More)