Stuart K. Card

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Visualization: The use of computer-supported, interactive, visual representations of data to amplify cognition. (6) Cognition is the acquisition or use of knowledge. This definition has the virtue of focusing as much on the purpose of visualization as the means. Hamming (1973) saud, “the purpose of computation is insight, not numbers.” Likewise for(More)
The task of managing and accessing large information spaces is a problem in large scale cognition. Enwrging technologies for 3D visualization and interactive aninlaiion offer potential solutions to this problenl, especially when the structure of the information can be visualized. We describe one of these Information Visualtzaiion techniques, called the Cone(More)
There are ~ e g : N ms:poets of aser~emt,xu{er ~rforma~ce tha~ sys*em designers s h ~ d sys~emarka{~ ~ e r. This arlic|e prop~yses a ~im~}e m ~ e L the Neys{T{.>ke-Levd Medea, for predkd~g o,~e aspe~'t M w2rferma:mee: the t ime i:t takes ,a~ e x p e l u~wr ~;:o perform a givers *az~ m~ a give= eom,p~:{er sys{~a. The model is e~ counting keystrokes(More)
Although information visualization (infovis) technologies have proven indispensable tools for making sense of complex data, wide-spread deployment has yet to take hold, as successful infovis applications are often difficult to author and require domain-specific customization. To address these issues, we have created prefuse, a software framework for(More)
We present a new visualization, called the Table Lens, for visualizing and making sense of large tables. The visualization uses a focus+ccmtext (fisheye) technique that works effectively on tabular information because it allows display of crucial label information and multiple distal focal areas. In addition, a graphical mapping scheme for depicting table(More)
Making sense of a body of data is a common activity in any kind of analysis. <italic>Sensemaking</italic> is the process of searching for a representation and encoding data in that representation to answer task-specific questions. Different operations during sensemaking require different cognitive and external resources. Representations are chosen and(More)
Tasks that involve large information spaces overwhelm workspaces that do not support efiicient use of space and time. For example, case studies indicate that information often contains linear components, which can result in 2D layouts with wide, inefficient aspect ratios. This paper describes a technique called the Perspective W’aU for visualizing linear(More)
This paper proposes a concept for the user interface of information retrieval systems called an information workspace. The concept goes beyond the usual notion of an information retrieval system to encompass the cost structure of information from secondary storage to immediate use. As an implementation of the concept, the paper describes an experimental(More)
A key constraint on the effectiveness of window-based human-computer interfaces is that the display screen is too small for many applications. This results in &#8220;window thrashing,&#8221; in which the user must expend considerable effort to keep desired windows visible. <italic>Rooms</italic> is a window manager that overcomes small screen size by(More)