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Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitals worldwide, because of its virulence, spore-forming ability and persistence. C. difficile-associated diseases are induced by antibiotic treatment or disruption of the normal gastrointestinal flora. Recently, morbidity and mortality resulting from C. difficile-associated diseases(More)
Clostridium difficile is a recognized pathogen in neonatal pigs and may contribute to enteritis in calves. Toxinotype V strains have been rare causes of human C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). We examined toxinotype V in human disease, the genetic relationship of animal and human toxinotype V strains, and in vitro toxin production of these strains.(More)
Introduction Clostridium difficile is a human and animal pathogen causing intestinal infections following disturbance of the gut microbiota, usually as a result of prior antibiotic treatment. Since the discovery of C. difficile as the major cause of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC), pathogenesis has been linked to production of toxins and two large, single(More)
  • Alan L Carey, Stuart Johnson, Michael K Murray, Danny Stevenson, Bai-Ling Wang
  • 2008
We develop the theory of Chern-Simons bundle 2-gerbes and mul-tiplicative bundle gerbes associated to any principal G-bundle with connection and a class in H 4 (BG, Z) for a compact semi-simple Lie group G. The Chern-Simons bundle 2-gerbe realises differential geometrically the Cheeger-Simons invariant. We apply these notions to refine the Dijkgraaf-Witten(More)
Our study sought to compare the strain types of Clostridium difficile causing initial and recurrent episodes of C. difficile infection (CDI) in adult patients with a first episode of CDI or 1 prior episode of CDI within the previous 90 days. Strains originated from patients who had been entered into two phase 3 randomized clinical trials of fidaxomicin(More)
Liking of a particular food after repeated consumption may be reduced, limiting the effectiveness of health-functional foods requiring on-going consumption to deliver their benefits. This study examined the effect of repeated consumption of foods containing the novel ingredient, Australian sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) kernel fibre (LKFibre) on(More)
Recent reports of reduced response to standard therapies for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the risk for recurrent CDI that is common with all currently available treatment agents have posed a significant challenge to clinicians. Current recommendations include metronidazole for treatment of mild to moderate CDI and vancomycin for severe CDI.(More)
Several different nomenclatures have been applied to the Clostridium difficile toxins and their associated genes. This paper summarizes the new nomenclature that has been agreed to by the research groups currently active in the field. The revised nomenclature includes C. difficile toxins and other related large clostridial toxins produced by Clostridium(More)
This paper shows how to construct anomaly free world sheet actions in string theory with D-branes. Our method is to use Deligne cohomology and bundle gerbe theory to define geometric objects which are naturally associated to D-branes and connections on them. The holonomy of these connections can be used to cancel global anomalies in the world sheet action.
UNLABELLED Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a significant animal pathogen, and a worldwide public health burden. Most disease-causing strains secrete two exotoxins, TcdA and TcdB, which are considered to be the primary virulence factors. Understanding the role that these toxins play in disease is essential for the(More)