Stuart John Forbes

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Macrophages perform both injury-inducing and repair-promoting tasks in different models of inflammation, leading to a model of macrophage function in which distinct patterns of activation have been proposed. We investigated macrophage function mechanistically in a reversible model of liver injury in which the injury and recovery phases are distinct. Carbon(More)
During chronic injury a population of bipotent hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) become activated to regenerate both cholangiocytes and hepatocytes. Here we show in human diseased liver and mouse models of the ductular reaction that Notch and Wnt signaling direct specification of HPCs via their interactions with activated myofibroblasts or macrophages. In(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a valuable source of pluripotential primary cells. To date, however, their homogeneous cellular differentiation to specific cell types in vitro has proven difficult. Wnt signaling has been shown to play important roles in coordinating development, and we demonstrate that Wnt3a is differentially expressed at critical(More)
Although macrophages are widely recognized to have a profibrotic role in inflammation, we have used a highly tractable CCl(4)-induced model of reversible hepatic fibrosis to identify and characterize the macrophage phenotype responsible for tissue remodeling: the hitherto elusive restorative macrophage. This CD11B(hi) F4/80(int) Ly-6C(lo) macrophage subset(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Bone marrow (BM) cells may transdifferentiate into or fuse with organ parenchymal cells. BM therapy shows promise in murine models of cirrhosis, and clinical trials of bone marrow stem cell therapy for organ healing are underway. However, the BM may contribute to scar-forming myofibroblasts in various organs including the liver. We have(More)
RATIONALE Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease. Antiinflammatory therapies, including corticosteroids, are of no benefit. The role of monocytes and macrophages is therefore controversial. OBJECTIVES To define the role of monocytes and macrophages during lung fibrogenesis and resolution, and explore the phenotype of the cells(More)
The liver has enormous regenerative capacity. Following acute liver injury, hepatocyte division regenerates the parenchyma but, if this capacity is overwhelmed during massive or chronic liver injury, the intrinsic hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) termed oval cells are activated. These HPCs are bipotential and can regenerate both biliary epithelia and(More)
UNLABELLED With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, it is now feasible to generate iPSCs with a defined genotype or disease state. When coupled with direct differentiation to a defined lineage, such as hepatic endoderm (HE), iPSCs would revolutionize the way we study human liver biology and generate efficient "off the shelf"(More)
RATIONALE Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic dysregulated response to alveolar epithelial injury with differentiation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts into matrix-secreting myofibroblasts resulting in lung scaring. The prognosis is poor and there are no effective therapies or reliable biomarkers. Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside binding lectin(More)
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with features of biliary tract differentiation. CCA is the second most common primary liver tumour and the incidence is increasing worldwide. CCA has high mortality owing to its aggressiveness, late diagnosis and refractory nature. In May 2015, the “European Network for the Study of(More)