Stuart John Ellem

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Although modern biotechnology has provided us with a greater understanding of the molecular events in endocrine-related diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer, these conditions continue to be a significant healthcare problem world-wide. As the number of men afflicted by these diseases will only continue to grow with the aging(More)
Both androgens and estrogens play a significant role in the prostate and are critical for normal prostate growth and development. The role of androgens in the prostate and in prostate disease is well known, however, the role for estrogens in the prostate and in prostate disease is complex and is still only just beginning to be appreciated. Our understanding(More)
Androgens are essential for stimulating normal development, growth and secretory activities of the prostate whereas oestrogens are generally regarded as inhibitors of growth. Evidence for the local synthesis of oestrogens includes the detection of aromatase mRNA and protein in the stroma of human non-malignant tissues and in malignant tissue, where it is(More)
Both androgens and estrogens play a significant role in the prostate and are critical for normal prostate growth and development, as well as the maintenance of adult prostatic homeostasis throughout life. It is the balance of these two hormones, rather than each individually, that is important for prostatic development and differentiation. Estrogen action(More)
Although androgens and estrogens both play significant roles in the prostate, it is their combined action--and specifically their balance--that is critically important in maintaining prostate health and tissue homeostasis in adulthood. In men, serum testosterone levels drop by about 35% between the ages of 21 and 85 while estradiol levels remain constant or(More)
Estrogens, acting via estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta, exert direct and indirect actions on prostate growth and differentiation. Previous studies using animal models to determine the role of ERbeta in the prostate have been problematic because the centrally mediated response to estrogen results in reduced androgen levels and prostatic epithelial(More)
Estrogen in females is conventionally considered a cardioprotective influence, but a role for estrogen in male cardioprotection has yet to be defined. Estrogen biosynthesis from testosterone is regulated by aromatase. Aromatase has recently been shown to be expressed in the adult heart, although little is known about its involvement in the regulation of(More)
Prostate cancer is hormone-dependent and regulated by androgens as well as oestrogens. The tumour microenvironment also provides regulatory control, but the balance and interplay between androgens and oestrogens at the human prostate tumour interface is unknown. This study reveals a central and dominant role for oestrogen in the microenvironment, fuelling a(More)
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and advanced disease is incurable. Model systems are a fundamental tool for research and many in vitro models of prostate cancer use cancer cell lines in monoculture. Although these have yielded significant insight they are inherently limited by virtue of their two-dimensional (2D) growth and(More)
Prostatitis causes substantial morbidity to men, through associated urinary symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and pelvic pain; however, 90% to 95% of cases have an unknown etiology. Inflammation is associated with the development of carcinoma, and, therefore, it is imperative to identify and study the causes of prostatitis to improve our understanding of this(More)