Stuart J Harrad

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This review summarises current knowledge about production volumes, physico-chemical properties, analysis, environmental occurrence, fate and behaviour and human exposure to the "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). We define the term NBFRs as relating to BFRs which are new to the market or newly/recently observed in the environment. Restrictions and(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in air (using PUF disk passive samplers) in 31 homes, 33 offices, 25 cars, and 3 public microenvironments. Average concentrations of sigmaBDE (273 pg m(-3)) and sigmaPCB (8920 pg m(-3)) were an order of magnitude higher than those previously reported for outdoor air.(More)
Because of the similarities in European and North American dietary exposure, it has been suggested that the order of magnitude higher body burdens in North Americans may be due to international variations in exposure via ingestion of indoor dust. Furthermore, ingestion of indoor dust has been suggested as a possible source of PBDEs in the blood serum of New(More)
In this paper, we review recent data for brominated flame retardants (particularly BDEs, HBCD and TBBP-A) in samples from the European and Asian environments, including recent temporal trend studies. Research is active and we cite over 100 studies published during 2005-2007. Environmental compartments studied comprise the atmosphere, indoor and outdoor air,(More)
Concentrations of 15 VOCs including 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and styrene were measured in a wide range of urban microenvironments, viz: homes, offices, restaurants, pubs, department stores, coach and train stations, cinemas, libraries, laboratories, perfume shops, heavily trafficked roadside locations, buses, trains, and automobiles. For most target(More)
The present article reviews the available literature on the analytical and environmental aspects of tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), a currently intensively used brominated flame retardant (BFR). Analytical methods, including sample preparation, chromatographic separation, detection techniques, and quality control are discussed. An important recent(More)
Due to worldwide restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the demand for alternative flame retardants (AFRs), such as organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), novel brominated FRs (NBFRs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), has recently increased. Little is known about human exposure to NBFRs and OPFRs and that their levels in dust have(More)
Concentrations are reported of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) in water (n = 27), sediment (n = 9), and fish samples (n = 30) from nine English lakes. Seasonal variation in concentrations in water is minimal. Concentrations of TBBP-A range from 140 to 3200 pg L(-1) (water), 330 to 3800 pg g(-1) dry weight (sediment), and(More)
While it is known that the ingestion of indoor dust contributes substantially to human exposure to the recently restricted polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the situation for one class of potential replacements, i.e. organophosphate esters (OPEs), used in a variety of applications including as flame retardants has yet to be fully characterised. In(More)
Hexabromocyclododecanes (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-HBCDs) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) were determined in indoor air from homes (n=33; median concentrations sigma HBCDs = 180 pg m(-3); TBBP-A = 15 pg m(-3)), offices (n=25; 170; 11), public microenvironments (n=4; 900; 27) and outdoor air (n=5; 37; 1). HBCDs and TBBP-A were also determined in dust from(More)