Stuart J. Daines

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Marine phytoplankton are responsible for ∼50% of the CO2 that is fixed annually worldwide, and contribute massively to other biogeochemical cycles in the oceans1. Their contribution depends significantly on the interplay between dynamic environmental conditions and the metabolic responses that underpin resource allocation and hence biogeochemical cycling in(More)
The controls on the 'Redfield' N : P stoichiometry of marine phytoplankton and hence the N : P ratio of the deep ocean remain incompletely understood. Here, we use a model for phytoplankton ecophysiology and growth, based on functional traits and resource-allocation trade-offs, to show how environmental filtering, biotic interactions, and element cycling in(More)
The progressive oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere was pivotal to the evolution of life, but the puzzle of when and how atmospheric oxygen (O2) first approached modern levels (∼21%) remains unresolved. Redox proxy data indicate the deep oceans were oxygenated during 435-392 Ma, and the appearance of fossil charcoal indicates O2 >15-17% by 420-400 Ma.(More)
Ocean acidification triggered by Siberian Trap volcanism was a possible kill mechanism for the Permo-Triassic Boundary mass extinction, but direct evidence for an acidification event is lacking. We present a high-resolution seawater pH record across this interval, using boron isotope data combined with a quantitative modeling approach. In the latest(More)
The ocean has undergone several profound biogeochemical transformations in its 4-billion-year history, and these were an integral part of the coevolution of life and the planet. This review focuses on changes in ocean redox state as controlled by changes in biological activity, nutrient concentrations, and atmospheric O2. Motivated by disparate(More)
6 The balance of evidence suggests that oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved by 3.0–2.7 Ga, several 7 hundred million years prior to the Great Oxidation ≈2.4 Ga. Previous work has shown that if oxygenic 8 photosynthesis spread globally prior to the Great Oxidation, this could have supported widespread 9 aerobic ecosystems in the surface ocean, without(More)
Contents 531 I. 531 II. 532 III. 534 IV. 535 V. 535 VI. 535 Acknowledgements 536 References 536 SUMMARY: There is growing evidence that life has been on land for billions of years. Microbial mats fuelled by oxygenic photosynthesis were probably present in terrestrial habitats from c. 3.0 billion yr ago (Ga) onwards, creating localized 'oxygen oases' under a(More)
Here we describe a new trait-based model for cellular resource allocation that we use to investigate the relative importance of different drivers for small cell size in phytoplankton. Using the model, we show that increased investment in nonscalable structural components with decreasing cell size leads to a trade-off between cell size, nutrient and light(More)
It is unclear why atmospheric oxygen remained trapped at low levels for more than 1.5 billion years following the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event. Here, we use models for erosion, weathering and biogeochemical cycling to show that this can be explained by the tectonic recycling of previously accumulated sedimentary organic carbon, combined with the(More)
The advent of genomic-, transcriptomic- and proteomic-based approaches has revolutionized our ability to describe marine microbial communities, including biogeography, metabolic potential and diversity, mechanisms of adaptation, and phylogeny and evolutionary history. New interdisciplinary approaches are needed to move from this descriptive level to(More)
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