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Human cells possess an antiviral activity that inhibits the release of retrovirus particles, and other enveloped virus particles, and is antagonized by the HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu. This antiviral activity can be constitutively expressed or induced by interferon-alpha, and it consists of protein-based tethers, which we term 'tetherins', that cause(More)
Chemokines have been convincingly implicated in actuating inflammatory leukocyte emigration. To affect the circulating leukocytes, tissue-derived chemokines have to traverse the endothelial cells (ECs). This was thought to be accomplished by chemokine diffusion through the intercellular gaps. On the contrary, we show by electron microscopy that the(More)
Tetherin/BST-2/CD317 is a recently identified antiviral protein that blocks the release of nascent retrovirus, and other virus, particles from infected cells. An HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu, acts as an antagonist of tetherin. Here, we show that positive selection is evident in primate tetherin sequences and that HIV-1 Vpu appears to have specifically(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 viral protein U (Vpu) protein enhances the release of diverse retroviruses from human, but not monkey, cells and is thought to do so by ablating a dominant restriction to particle release. Here, we determined how Vpu expression affects the subcellular distribution of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MLV) Gag(More)
Tetherin (CD317/BST2) is an interferon-induced membrane protein that inhibits the release of diverse enveloped viral particles. Several mammalian viruses have evolved countermeasures that inactivate tetherin, with the prototype being the HIV-1 Vpu protein. Here we show that the human herpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is sensitive to(More)
Antiviral proteins that recognize pathogen-specific or aberrantly located molecular motifs are perfectly positioned to act as pattern-recognition receptors and signal to the immune system. Here we investigated whether the interferon-induced viral restriction factor tetherin (CD317/BST2), which is known to inhibit HIV-1 particle release by physically(More)
The Ig-like transcript (ILT) 7 is a surface molecule selectively expressed by human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). ILT7 cross-linking suppresses pDC activation and type I IFN (IFN-I) secretion following TLR7/9 engagement. The bone marrow stromal cell Ag 2 (BST2, aka HM1.24, tetherin, or CD317) is expressed by different cell types upon exposure to(More)
Recently proposed models that have gained wide acceptance posit that HIV-1 virion morphogenesis is initiated by targeting the major structural protein (Gag) to late endosomal membranes. Thereafter, late endosome-based secretory pathways are thought to deliver Gag or assembled virions to the plasma membrane (PM) and extracellular milieu. We present several(More)
Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) expressed on red blood cells (RBCs) influences plasma levels of HIV-1-suppressive and proinflammatory chemokines such as CCL5/RANTES. DARC is also the RBC receptor for Plasmodium vivax. Africans with DARC -46C/C genotype, which confers a DARC-negative phenotype, are resistant to vivax malaria. Here, we show that(More)
Type I interferon (IFN) treatment of some cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages and monocytic THP-1 cells, restricts HIV-1 infection and prevents viral cDNA accumulation. Sterile alpha motif and HD domain protein 1 (SAMHD1), a dGTP-regulated deoxynucleotide triphosphohydrolase, reduces HIV-1 infectivity in myeloid cells, likely by limiting dNTPs(More)