Stuart J. D. Neil

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Human cells possess an antiviral activity that inhibits the release of retrovirus particles, and other enveloped virus particles, and is antagonized by the HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu. This antiviral activity can be constitutively expressed or induced by interferon-alpha, and it consists of protein-based tethers, which we term 'tetherins', that cause(More)
Tetherin/BST-2/CD317 is a recently identified antiviral protein that blocks the release of nascent retrovirus, and other virus, particles from infected cells. An HIV-1 accessory protein, Vpu, acts as an antagonist of tetherin. Here, we show that positive selection is evident in primate tetherin sequences and that HIV-1 Vpu appears to have specifically(More)
Tetherin (CD317/BST-2), an interferon-induced membrane protein, restricts the release of nascent retroviral particles from infected cell surfaces. While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes the accessory gene vpu to overcome the action of tetherin, the lineage of primate lentiviruses that gave rise to HIV-2 does not. It has been previously(More)
Type 1 interferon (IFN) inhibits the release of HIV-1 virus particles via poorly defined mechanisms. Here, we show that IFNalpha induces retention of viral particles on the surface of fibroblasts, T cells, or primary lymphocytes infected with HIV-1 lacking the Vpu protein. Retained particles are tethered to cell surfaces, can be endocytosed, appear fully(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 viral protein U (Vpu) protein enhances the release of diverse retroviruses from human, but not monkey, cells and is thought to do so by ablating a dominant restriction to particle release. Here, we determined how Vpu expression affects the subcellular distribution of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MLV) Gag(More)
Tetherin (BST2/CD317) potently restricts the particle release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutants defective in the accessory gene vpu. Vpu antagonizes tetherin activity and induces its cell surface downregulation and degradation in a manner dependent on the transmembrane (TM) domains of both proteins. We have carried out extensive(More)
The expression of many putative antiviral genes is upregulated when cells encounter type I interferon (IFN), but the actual mechanisms by which many IFN-induced gene products inhibit virus replication are poorly understood. A recently identified IFN-induced antiretroviral protein, termed tetherin (previously known as BST-2 or CD317), blocks the release of(More)
Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a recently discovered gammaretrovirus that has been linked to prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. This virus is therefore an important potential human pathogen and, as such, it is essential to understand its host cell tropism. Intriguingly, infectious virus has been recovered from(More)
Recently proposed models that have gained wide acceptance posit that HIV-1 virion morphogenesis is initiated by targeting the major structural protein (Gag) to late endosomal membranes. Thereafter, late endosome-based secretory pathways are thought to deliver Gag or assembled virions to the plasma membrane (PM) and extracellular milieu. We present several(More)
Antiviral proteins that recognize pathogen-specific or aberrantly located molecular motifs are perfectly positioned to act as pattern-recognition receptors and signal to the immune system. Here we investigated whether the interferon-induced viral restriction factor tetherin (CD317/BST2), which is known to inhibit HIV-1 particle release by physically(More)