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This essay grew out of an examination of one-tailed significance testing. One-tailed tests were little advocated by the founders of modern statistics but are widely used and recommended nowadays in the biological, behavioral and social sciences. The high frequency of their use in ecology and animal behavior and their logical indefensibil-ity have been(More)
The commentary by Tatarnikov (2005) on the design and analysis of manipulative experiments in ecology represents an obvious danger to readers with poor knowledge of modern statistics due to its erroneous interpretation of pseudoreplication and statistical independence. Here we offer clarification of those concepts--and related ones such as experimental unit(More)
The history, definitions, and transdisciplinary extent of pseudoreplication, as well as some key concepts of experimental design, are briefly reviewed. Pseudoreplication, sometimes also referred to as the 'unit of analysis error,' is one of the commonest errors of statistical analysis and interpretation. It is a simple albeit serious one. It persists in(More)
For those who have not recognized the disparate natures of tests of statistical hypotheses and tests of scientific hypotheses, one-tailed statistical tests of null hypotheses such as ∂ ≤ 0 or ∂ ≥ 0 have often seemed a reasonable procedure. We earlier reviewed the many grounds for not regarding them as such. To have at least some power for detection of(More)
Pseudofactorialism is defined as 'the invalid statistical analysis that results from the misidentification of two or more response variables as representing different levels of an experimental variable or treatment factor. Most often the invalid analysis consists of use of an (n + 1)-way anova in a situation where two or more n-way anovas would be the(More)
Pseudoreplication has become a widely accepted label for a certain class of statistical error common in the literature of ecology as well as of other fields. A wide-ranging critique by L. Oksanen recently published in this journal criticizes the term and concept and concludes it to be a ''pseudoissue,'' one reflecting an intellectual disease, ''a totally(More)
We examined the statistical analyses of experimental data in 95 papers published during 1966-1990 on the ecology, physiology, and behavior of freshwater invertebrate zooplankti-vores. Serious statistical errors were found in 51% of the papers. The frequencies of particular types of errors were as follows: sacrificial pseudoreplication (31%), simple(More)
The zooplankton and flamingo populations of 20 high elevation (3,700-4,700 m) lakes in the Andes of southern Peru were assessed on one to three occasions each. Some of these lakes have cyprinodont fish (Orestias spp.), others do not. Lakes with fish usually have a sparse zooplankton dominated by cyclopoid copepods and chydorid cladocerans; the others tend(More)