Learn More
This essay grew out of an examination of one-tailed significance testing. One-tailed tests were little advocated by the founders of modern statistics but are widely used and recommended nowadays in the biological, behavioral and social sciences. The high frequency of their use in ecology and animal behavior and their logical indefensibil-ity have been(More)
In artificial pools Gambusia affinis greatly reduced rotifer, crustacean, and insect populations and thus permitted extraordinary development of phytoplankton populations (2x10(8) cells per milliliter). Other effects included decreased optical transmissivity and increased temperature of the water, decreased amounts of dissolved inorganic phosphorus, and(More)
The Salton Sea is a shallow (mean depth = 8 m; maximum depth = 15 m), saline (41–45 g l−1), intermittently mixing, 57 km long, 980 km2 lake located in the arid southwestern United States. The Sea is a wind driven system, with predominant winds paralleling the long axis of the lake, being strongest in spring and weakest in summer and fall. The Sea mixed(More)
An investigation of the effects of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) predation was conducted in 12 experimental ponds in southern California over a period of 10 months.Gambusia essentially eliminatedDaphnia pulex andCeriodaphnia sp. populations, reducedDiaptomus pallidus andKeratella quadrata populations, had little impact onCyclops vernalis, and caused large(More)
Chattonella marina was found in high abundance in the phytoplankton of the Salton Sea from April to November, 1997. Maximum mean density was over 600 cells ml−1 mid-lake. It was not detected from January 1997 to March 1997 or in January and February 1998. Transmission electron microscope studies show the typical Chattonella features: a teardrop-shaped(More)
A summary of all existing information collected since 1980 on contaminants in tilapia from the Salton Sea is presented and risks to humans and fish-eating birds assessed. Of the 17 trace elements, 42 organic pesticides and 48 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) analyzed in tilapia whole body and fillet samples, only selenium (Se), arsenic (As) and possibly(More)
The history, definitions, and transdisciplinary extent of pseudoreplication, as well as some key concepts of experimental design, are briefly reviewed. Pseudoreplication, sometimes also referred to as the 'unit of analysis error,' is one of the commonest errors of statistical analysis and interpretation. It is a simple albeit serious one. It persists in(More)
The Salton Sea, the largest lake in California, has a surface elevation 69 m below sea level which is maintained predominantly by the balance of agricultural runoff and evaporation. The lack of outflowing streams is resulting in a gradual buildup of salts in the lake, increasing the salinity. A 15 month microcosm experiment was conducted to determine the(More)
The Salton Sea is the largest inland lake in California. Currently (1997) the salinity of the lake is about 44 g l-1 and is increasing gradually as a result of continued agricultural wastewater inflows, high evaporation rates, and lack of an outlet. A microcosm experiment was carried out to determine the effects of salinity (30, 39, 48, 57, and 65 g l-1) on(More)