Stuart H. Hurlbert

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The recent literature on species diversity contains many semantic, conceptual, and technical problems. It is suggested that, as a result of these problems, species diversity has become a meaningless concept, that the term be abandoned, and that ecologists take a more critical approach to species-number relations and rely less on information theoretic and(More)
This essay grew out of an examination of one-tailed significance testing. One-tailed tests were little advocated by the founders of modern statistics but are widely used and recommended nowadays in the biological, behavioral and social sciences. The high frequency of their use in ecology and animal behavior and their logical indefensibil-ity have been(More)
In artificial pools Gambusia affinis greatly reduced rotifer, crustacean, and insect populations and thus permitted extraordinary development of phytoplankton populations (2x10(8) cells per milliliter). Other effects included decreased optical transmissivity and increased temperature of the water, decreased amounts of dissolved inorganic phosphorus, and(More)
The Salton Sea is a shallow (mean depth = 8 m; maximum depth = 15 m), saline (41–45 g l−1), intermittently mixing, 57 km long, 980 km2 lake located in the arid southwestern United States. The Sea is a wind driven system, with predominant winds paralleling the long axis of the lake, being strongest in spring and weakest in summer and fall. The Sea mixed(More)
The commentary by Tatarnikov (2005) on the design and analysis of manipulative experiments in ecology represents an obvious danger to readers with poor knowledge of modern statistics due to its erroneous interpretation of pseudoreplication and statistical independence. Here we offer clarification of those concepts--and related ones such as experimental unit(More)
Pseudoreplication has become a widely accepted label for a certain class of statistical error common in the literature of ecology as well as of other fields. A wide-ranging critique by L. Oksanen recently published in this journal criticizes the term and concept and concludes it to be a ‘‘pseudoissue,’’ one reflecting an intellectual disease, ‘‘a totally(More)
An investigation of the effects of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) predation was conducted in 12 experimental ponds in southern California over a period of 10 months.Gambusia essentially eliminatedDaphnia pulex andCeriodaphnia sp. populations, reducedDiaptomus pallidus andKeratella quadrata populations, had little impact onCyclops vernalis, and caused large(More)
Chattonella marina was found in high abundance in the phytoplankton of the Salton Sea from April to November, 1997. Maximum mean density was over 600 cells ml−1 mid-lake. It was not detected from January 1997 to March 1997 or in January and February 1998. Transmission electron microscope studies show the typical Chattonella features: a teardrop-shaped(More)