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Nuclear export of certain HIV-1 mRNAs requires an interaction between the viral Rev protein and the Rev response element (RRE), a structured element located in the Env region of its RNA genome. This interaction is an attractive target for both drug design and gene therapy, exemplified by RevM10, a transdominant negative protein that, when introduced into(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying pluripotency and lineage specification from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are largely unclear. Differentiation pathways may be determined by the targeted activation of lineage-specific genes or by selective silencing of genome regions. Here we show that the ESC genome is transcriptionally globally hyperactive and undergoes(More)
The crystal structure of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) bound to an RNA/DNA hybrid reveals an extensive network of contacts with the phosphate backbone of the DNA strand approximately 4-9 bp downstream from the ribonuclease H (RNase H) catalytic center. Collectively designated as 'the RNase H primer grip', this motif(More)
The long-terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon Ty1 is a mobile genetic element that replicates through an RNA intermediate. Retroelement genomic transcripts contain internal structures fundamental to gene expression and propagation. In addition, long non-coding antisense RNAs overlap the 5'-terminal region of the genomic RNA and confer post-translational(More)
Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of several complex and simple retroviruses and retroelements have been elucidated, with the exception of the gammaretrovirus family. We found that, similar to the other retroviruses, gag gene expression of MuLV and XMRV depends on post-transcriptional regulation mediated via an RNA sequence overlapping the pro-pol(More)
We reported previously that substitutions F61L, F61W, F61Y and F61A in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase affect strand displacement synthesis [T. S. Fisher, T. Darden and V. R. Prasad (2003) J. Mol. Biol., 325, 443-459]. We have now determined the effect of these mutations on HIV replication. All mutant viruses were(More)
The interactions of archetypical nucleic acid ligands with the HIV-1 polypurine tract (PPT) RNA:DNA hybrid, as well as analogous DNA:DNA, RNA:RNA and swapped hybrid substrates, were used to probe structural features of the PPT that contribute to its specific recognition and processing by reverse transcriptase (RT). Results from intercalative and(More)
Previous results using a SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment)-based approach that selected DNA primer-template duplexes binding with high affinity to HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) showed that primers mimicking the 3' end, and in particular the six nt terminal G tract, of the RNA polypurine tract (PPT; HIV PPT:(More)
Aspartic acid residues comprising the -D-(aa) n -Y-L-D-D- DNA polymerase active site triad of reverse transcriptase from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae long terminal repeat-retrotransposon Ty3 (Asp151, Asp213 and Asp214) were evaluated via site-directed mutagenesis. An Asp151-->Glu substitution showed a dramatic decrease in catalytic efficiency and a severe(More)
Although polypurine tract (PPT)-primed initiation of plus-strand DNA synthesis in retroviruses and LTR-containing retrotransposons can be accurately duplicated, the molecular details underlying this concerted series of events remain largely unknown. Importantly, the PPT 3' terminus must be accommodated by ribonuclease H (RNase H) and DNA polymerase(More)