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New treatments are needed to improve the health of people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Reducing lung-damaging inflammation is likely to be beneficial, but specific anti-inflammatory targets have not been identified. By combining cellular immunology with a population-based genetic modifier study, we examined TLR5 as an anti-inflammatory target and modifier(More)
Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID) is universally fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Following the identification of disseminated Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infections in Canadian First Nations, Métis and Inuit (FNMI) children with unrecognized primary immune deficiencies, a national surveillance study was(More)
Campylobacter jejuni is a major source of foodborne illness in the developed world, and a common cause of clinical gastroenteritis. Exactly how C. jejuni colonizes its host's intestines and causes disease is poorly understood. Although it causes severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans, C. jejuni typically dwells as a commensal microbe within the(More)
Neonatal pain-related stress is associated with elevated salivary cortisol levels to age 18 months in children born very preterm, compared to full-term, suggesting early programming effects. Importantly, interactions between immune/inflammatory and neuroendocrine systems may underlie programming effects. We examined whether cortisol changes persist to(More)
We present evidence that donor-reactive CD4(+) T cells present in mice tolerant to donor alloantigens are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous. CD4(+) T cells contained within the CD45RB(high) fraction remained capable of mediating graft rejection when transferred to donor alloantigen-grafted T cell-depleted mice. In contrast, the CD45RB(low)(More)
Newborns and young infants suffer increased infectious morbidity and mortality as compared to older children and adults. Morbidity and mortality due to infection are highest during the first weeks of life, decreasing over several years. Furthermore, most vaccines are not administered around birth, but over the first few years of life. A more complete(More)
Although it is widely accepted that there is a hierarchy in the susceptibility of different allografts to rejection, the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We show that the increased susceptibility of H-2K(b+) skin and islet allografts to rejection is not based on their ability to activate more H-2K(b)-specific T cells in vivo; heart allografts stimulate(More)
A major stumbling block for research on and treatment of type 1 diabetes is the inability to directly, but noninvasively, visualize the lymphocytic/inflammatory lesions in the pancreatic islets. One potential approach to surmounting this impediment is to exploit MRI of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to visualize changes in the microvasculature that invariably(More)
A cure for type 1 diabetes will probably require the provision or elicitation of new pancreatic islet beta cells as well as the reestablishment of immunological tolerance. A 2003 study reported achievement of both advances in the NOD mouse model by coupling injection of Freund's complete adjuvant with infusion of allogeneic spleen cells. It was concluded(More)
The discovery of novel antiinflammatory targets to treat inflammation in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung stands to benefit patient populations suffering with this disease. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing autoinducer N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3O-C12) is an important bacterial virulence factor that has been reported to induce(More)