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Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the solar wind is observed to show the spectral behavior of classical Kolmogorov fluid turbulence over an inertial subrange and departures from this at short wavelengths, where energy should be dissipated. Here we present the first measurements of the electric field fluctuation spectrum over the inertial and(More)
On 1 April 2001, the Polar satellite crossed a subsolar magnetopause associated with antiparallel magnetic fields. Over a width approximately 6 magnetosheath ion skin depths (approximately 3 magnetospheric ion skin depths), perpendicular ion flows different from E x B/B(2) as well as Hall magnetic and electric field signatures were observed. At a smaller(More)
Large parallel (<or=100 mV/m) and perpendicular (<or=600 mV/m) electric fields were measured in the Earth's bow shock by the vector electric field experiment on the Polar satellite. These are the first reported direct measurements of parallel electric fields in a collisionless shock. These fields exist on spatial scales comparable to or less than the(More)
The proton temperature anisotropy in the solar wind is known to be constrained by the theoretical thresholds for pressure-anisotropy-driven instabilities. Here, we use approximately 1x10;{6} independent measurements of gyroscale magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind to show for the first time that these fluctuations are enhanced along the temperature(More)
Space weather refers to dynamic conditions on the Sun and in the space environment of the Earth, which are often driven by solar eruptions and their subsequent interplanetary disturbances. It has been unclear how an extreme space weather storm forms and how severe it can be. Here we report and investigate an extreme event with multi-point remote-sensing and(More)
We present in situ measurements in a space plasma showing that thin current sheets the size of an ion inertial length exist and are abundant in strong and intermittent plasma turbulence. Many of these current sheets exhibit the microphysical signatures of reconnection. The spatial scale where intermittency occurs corresponds to the observed structures. The(More)
We report direct measurements of high-energy particles in a rare crossing of the diffusion region in Earth's magnetotail by the Wind spacecraft. The fluxes of energetic electrons up to approximately 300 keV peak near the center of the diffusion region and decrease monotonically away from this region. The diffusion region electron flux spectrum obeys a power(More)
Spacecraft observations of turbulence within a magnetic reconnection (guide field approximately 0) ion diffusion region are presented. In the inertial subrange, electric and magnetic fluctuations both followed a -5/3 power law; at higher frequencies, the spectral indices were -1 and -8/3, respectively. The dispersion relation was found to be consistent with(More)
Key Points: • Ion-scale spectral break measured in solar wind with very high and low beta • Break occurs at the larger of the ion gyroradius and ion inertial length • Results compared to various theoretical expectations (2014), Ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence at high and low beta, This is an open access article under the terms of the(More)
Measurements of a spacecraft floating potential, on the four Cluster spacecraft, are used as a proxy for electron plasma density to study, for the first time, the macroscopic density transition scale at 98 crossings of the quasiperpendicular terrestrial bow shock. A timing analysis gives shock speeds and normals; the shock speed is used to convert the(More)