Stuart C. Shapiro

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People frequently and effectively integrate deictic and graphic gestures with their natural language (NL) when conducting human-to-human dialogue. Similar multi-modal communication can facilitate human interaction with modern sophisticated information processing and decision-aiding computer systems. As part of the CUBRICON project, we are developing NL(More)
Computationally expensive processes, such as deductive rea-soners, can suffer performance issues when they operate over large-scale data sets. The optimal procedure would allow rea-soners to only operate on that information that is relevant. Procedures that approach such an ideal are necessary to accomplish the goal of commonsense reasoning, which is to(More)
In order to function robustly in the world, autonomous agents need to assimilate concepts for physical entities and relations, grounded in perception and action. They also need to assimilate concepts for perceptual properties like color, shape, and weight, and perhaps eventually even for nonphysical objects like unicorns. The process of acquiring concepts(More)
Augmented transition network (ATN) grammars have, since their development by Woods [ 7; ~, become the most used method of describing grammars for natural language understanding end question answering systems. The advantages of the ATN notation have been su,naarized as "I) perspicuity, 2) generative power, 3) efficiency of representation, 4) the ability to(More)
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