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1 Motivation SNePS, the Semantic Network Processing System 45, 54], has been designed to be a system for representing the beliefs of a natural-language-using intelligent system (a \cognitive agent"). It has always been the intention that a SNePS-based \knowledge base" would ultimately be built, not by a programmer or knowledge engineer entering(More)
The augmented transition network (ATN) is a formalism for writing parsing grammars that has been much used in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Linguistics. A few researchers have also used ATNs for writing grammars for generating sentences. Previously , however, either generation ATNs did not have the same semantics as parsing ATNs, or they(More)
An integrated statement is made concerning the semantic status of nodes in a propositional semantic network, claiming that such nodes represent only in-tensions. Within the network, the only reference to extensionality is via a mechanism to assert that two intensions have the same extension in some world. This framework is employed in three application(More)
Abatraot Raouralva rules, such as "Your parents' ancestors are your ancestors", although vary uaaful for theorem proving, natural languaga understanding, question-answering and Information retrieval systems, present problems for many such systems, either causing infinite loopa or requiring that arbitrarily many copies of them be made. SNIP, the SNaPS(More)
We have enhanced a computational cognitive agent by embodying it with real and simulated bodies operating in real and simulated worlds. This has allowed us to experiment with various ways that embodiment influences the creation and meaning of the agent's beliefs and other terms in its knowledge base, including: symbol-grounding by perception and action;(More)
We discuss how a deductive question-answering system can represent the beliefs or other cognitive states of users, of other (interacting) systems, and of itself. In particular, we examine the representation of first-person beliefs of others (e.g., the ~/v.~'~ representation of a user'A belief that he himself is rich). Such beliefs have as an essential(More)