Stuart C. Ray

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The development of an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine is likely to depend on knowledge of circulating variants of genes other than the commonly sequenced gag and env genes. In addition, full-genome data are particularly limited for HIV-1 subtype C, currently the most commonly transmitted subtype in India and worldwide.(More)
The genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Cowdria, Neorickettsia and Wolbachia encompass a group of obligate intracellular bacteria that reside in vacuoles of eukaryotic cells and were previously placed in taxa based upon morphological, ecological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Recent genetic analyses of 16S rRNA genes, groESL and surface protein(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) bind pathogen-specific ligands early in infection, initiating signaling pathways that lead to expression of multiple protective cellular genes. Many viruses have evolved strategies that block the effector mechanisms induced through these signaling pathways, but viral interference with critical proximal receptor interactions has(More)
Sequences flanking translational initiation and termination sites have been compiled and statistically analyzed for various eukaryotic taxonomic groups. A few key similarities between taxonomic groups support conserved mechanisms of initiation and termination. However, a high degree of sequence variation at these sites within and between various eukaryotic(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem in Egypt, where the seroprevalence is 10-20-fold higher than that in the United States. To characterize the HCV genotype distribution and concordance of genotype assessments on the basis of multiple genomic regions, specimens were obtained from blood donors in 15 geographically diverse governorates(More)
Antiretroviral therapy can reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viremia to below the detection limit of ultrasensitive clinical assays (50 copies of HIV-1 RNA/ml). However, latent HIV-1 persists in resting CD4+ T cells, and low residual levels of free virus are found in the plasma. Limited characterization of this residual viremia has been(More)
The virological and immunological features of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were studied weekly for 6 months after accidental needlestick exposure in five health care workers, four of whom developed acute hepatitis that progressed to chronicity while one subject cleared the virus. In all subjects, viremia was first detectable within 1-2 weeks of(More)
Vertebrate retinal photoreceptors recover from photoexcitation-induced hydrolysis of guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) by resynthesizing cyclic GMP, which reopens cation channels that have been closed by light. Activation of guanylate cyclase by light-induced depletion of cytosolic calcium is a key event in this recovery process. This cyclase has(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently persists despite substantial virus-specific cellular immune responses. To determine if immunologically driven sequence variation occurs with HCV persistence, we coordinately analyzed sequence evolution and CD8+ T cell responses to epitopes covering the entire HCV polyprotein in subjects who were followed(More)
CONTEXT Many patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy experience intermittent episodes of detectable viremia ("blips"), which may raise concerns about drug resistance, lead to costly repeat measurements of viral RNA, and sometimes trigger alterations in therapy. OBJECTIVE To test(More)