Stuart C Howes

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Tubulin undergoes posttranslational modifications proposed to specify microtubule subpopulations for particular functions. Most of these modifications occur on the C-termini of tubulin and may directly affect the binding of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) or motors. Acetylation of Lys-40 on α-tubulin is unique in that it is located on the luminal(More)
All eukaryotic cells must segregate their chromosomes equally between two daughter cells at each division. This process needs to be robust, as errors in the form of loss or gain of genetic material have catastrophic effects on viability. Chromosomes are captured, aligned, and segregated to daughter cells via interaction with spindle microtubules mediated by(More)
Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and(More)
CENP-E (centromere protein E) and CENP-F (centromere protein F), also known as mitosin, are large, multi-functional proteins associated with the outer kinetochore. CENP-E features a well-characterized kinesin motor domain at its N-terminus and a second microtubule-binding domain at its C-terminus of unknown function. CENP-F is important for the formation of(More)
The assembly of microtubule-based cellular structures depends on regulated tubulin polymerization and directional transport. Here, we purify and characterize tubulin heterodimers that have human β-tubulin isotype III (TUBB3), as well as heterodimers with one of two β-tubulin mutations (D417H or R262H). Both point mutations are proximal to the(More)
A number of microtubule (MT)-stabilizing agents (MSAs) have demonstrated or predicted potential as anticancer agents, but a detailed structural basis for their mechanism of action is still lacking. We have obtained high-resolution (3.9-4.2Å) cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of MTs stabilized by the taxane-site binders Taxol and(More)
Proteins that associate with microtubules (MTs) are crucial to generate MT arrays and establish different cellular architectures. One example is PRC1 (protein regulator of cytokinesis 1), which cross-links antiparallel MTs and is essential for the completion of mitosis and cytokinesis. Here we describe a 4-Å-resolution cryo-EM structure of monomeric PRC1(More)
Microtubules are polymers of αβ-tubulin heterodimers essential for all eukaryotes. Despite sequence conservation, there are significant structural differences between microtubules assembled in vitro from mammalian or budding yeast tubulin. Yeast MTs were not observed to undergo compaction at the interdimer interface as seen for mammalian microtubules upon(More)
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