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Two studies are reported that test the hypothesis that previous support for the cusp catastrophe model of anxiety and performance, and the hysteresis effect in particular, could have been due to a complex interaction between cognitive anxiety and effort required rather than between cognitive anxiety and physiological arousal. We used task difficulty to(More)
Four studies were conducted with two primary objectives: (a) to conceptualize and measure mental toughness from a behavioral perspective and (b) to apply relevant personality theory to the examination of between-person differences in mentally tough behavior. Studies 1 (N = 305 participants from a range of different sports) and 2 (N = 110 high-level(More)
Captain Jack Sparrow: The central character. He is a very cunning man who always manages to escape from difficult situations. At the beginning of the book, he is rescued from the land of the dead by Elizabeth and her friends. He is the captain of the Black Pearl. Captain Barbossa: A pirate who is always fighting Sparrow over who is the captain of the Pearl,(More)
We investigated for the first time whether the principles of specificity could be extended to the psychological construct of anxiety and whether any benefits of practicing with anxiety are dependent on the amount of exposure and timing of that exposure in relation to where in learning the exposure occurs. In Experiment 1, novices practiced a discrete(More)
The present study explored the interactive effects of self-efficacy and increasing/decreasing task difficulty upon engagement and disengagement within a cusp-catastrophe model framework. Using a closed motor skill aiming task participants (N=60) were required to compete in conditions where task difficulty increased and then decreased (or vice versa) where(More)
Objectives: To test the hypothesis that a decrease in confidence on a well-learned task will increase effort and performance. Design: A 2 (group: control, experimental) Â 2 (trial: practice, competition) mixed-model with repeated measures on the second factor. Method: Expert skippers' (n ¼ 28) self-confidence was reduced via a combination of task (i.e.,(More)
OBJECTIVE Humans are often required to perform demanding cognitive and motor tasks under pressure. However, in such environments there is considerable interindividual variability in the ability to successfully execute actions. Here, we consider how individual differences in self-reported sensitivity to punishment influence skilled motor performance under(More)
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