Learn More
BACKGROUND Classification of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity guides management and contributes to determination of prognosis. Common indicators of TBI severity include Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, length of coma (LOC) and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). OBJECTIVE To compare GCS, LOC and PTA by examining distributions and(More)
BACKGROUND Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) bolus injection effectively decreases spinal excitability but the impact on lower limb muscle activation during gait has not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVE Examine activation of medial gastrocnemius (MG) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles during gait before and after ITB bolus injection in patients with(More)
Few studies address the course of recovery from prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOC) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study examined acute and long-term outcomes of persons with DOC admitted to acute inpatient rehabilitation within the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) TBI Model Systems Programs(More)
BACKGROUND While spasticity is commonly treated with oral agents or botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injection, these treatments have not been systematically compared. METHODS This study performed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare injection of BoNT-Type A into spastic upper limb muscles versus oral tizanidine (TZD), or placebo, in(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize gait characteristics of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lower limb muscle hypertonia, distinguishing gait adaptations inherent to TBI motor impairment from those of healthy subjects walking at slower speed. METHODS Temporospatial and kinematic data of 31 patients with TBI (41 ± 30 months post-injury) walking at(More)
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE To validate the Mississippi Aphasia Screening Test (MAST) which includes nine sub-scales measuring expressive and receptive language abilities. RESEARCH DESIGN Evaluation of inpatients admitted to neurology, neurosurgery or rehabilitation units at two local hospitals and who were within 60 days of onset of a unilateral ischemic or(More)
BACKGROUND Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) effectively reduces muscle hypertonia; however, associated complications influence its utility and acceptance. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the literature on procedure- and device-related complications associated with ITB infusion therapy for adult muscle hypertonia of spinal or cerebral origin. METHODS The(More)
Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), occurring in 10-25% of patients with moderate to severe injuries. The development of animal models for testing antiepileptogenic therapies and validation of biomarkers to follow epileptogenesis in humans necessitates sophisticated understanding of the subtypes of PTE, which is(More)
We studied the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTXA) among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and severe spasticity unresponsive to conservative management. Twenty-one consecutive adult patients with severe spasticity involving the wrist and finger flexor musculature were treated with BTXA injection (20 to 40 units per muscle) under EMG guidance. After(More)
OBJECTIVE To update the 2008 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guidelines regarding botulinum neurotoxin for blepharospasm, cervical dystonia (CD), headache, and adult spasticity. METHODS We searched the literature for relevant articles and classified them using 2004 AAN criteria. RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Blepharospasm: OnabotulinumtoxinA(More)