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This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Either adding the spin degree of freedom to conventional charge-based electronic devices or using the spin alone has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased(More)
Spintronics is a rapidly emerging field of science and technology that will most likely have a significant impact on the future of all aspects of electronics as we continue to move into the 21st century. Conventional electronics are based on the charge of the electron. Attempts to use the other fundamental property of an electron, its spin, have given rise(More)
Electron-electron interactions can render an otherwise conducting material insulating, with the insulator-metal phase transition in correlated-electron materials being the canonical macroscopic manifestation of the competition between charge-carrier itinerancy and localization. The transition can arise from underlying microscopic interactions among the(More)
As classical information technology approaches limits of size and functionality, practitioners are searching for new paradigms for the distribution and processing of information. Our goal in this Introduction is to provide a broad view of the beginning of a new era in information technology, an era of quantum information, where previously underutilized(More)
Recently, with the discovery of multiferroic materials, there has been a great interest in creating logic devices which exploit both magnetic and electric properties of these materials. This paper proposes a reconfigurable array of magnetic automata (RAMA) made of multiferroic nanopillars which can be operated using electric fields. Furthermore, due to the(More)
Emerging nanotechnologies have the potential to completely revolutionize the semiconductor industry by providing "more than Moore" capabilities. Instead of trying to compete in areas where conventional CMOS is still dominant, such as digital processing, emerging technologies can provide a perfect complement to CMOS in areas where conventional solutions are(More)
In the last ten years, the state of the art in nanoelectronics, including nanomagnetics, has rapidly gone from devices at or above 100 nm in size to the realm of 30 nm and below, with a well-defined pathway to devices (including transistors for logic and memory) of about 15 nm. In the process of reaching this size, the thickness of the critical layers in(More)
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