Learn More
OBJECTIVE The text of the DSM-IV states that a diagnosis of conduct disorder should be made only if symptoms are caused by an internal psychological dysfunction and not if symptoms are a reaction to a negative environment. However, the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria are purely behavioral and ignore this exclusion. This study empirically evaluated which(More)
BACKGROUND The DSM assumes that mental disorders can be identified by the presence of specific co-occurring symptoms associated with certain duration and impaired functioning, independent of the social context in which symptoms occur. The validity of this assumption was tested using the judgments of experienced psychiatrists. We hypothesized that(More)
BACKGROUND Conduct disorder (CD) must be distinguished from nondisordered delinquent behaviour to avoid false positives, especially when diagnosing youth from difficult environments. However, the nature of this distinction remains controversial. The DSM-IV observes that its own syndromal CD diagnostic criteria conflict with its definition of mental(More)
There are few data on the persistence of individual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations in the absence of selective drug pressure. We studied 313 patients in whom TDR mutations were detected at their first resistance test and who had a subsequent test performed while ART-naive. The rate at which mutations(More)
Using a vignette-based, mailed survey of 1,401 experienced psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers, the authors examined how clients' race/ethnicity and clinicians' professional and social characteristics affect their judgment of mental disorder among antisocially behaving youths. Vignettes described problematic behaviors meeting the Diagnostic and(More)
The major objective of the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (see, e.g., the 4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) has been to achieve better diagnostic consistency. This has proved to be an elusive goal, because the diagnostic criteria and their rules for application can be ambiguous. This study(More)
Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a(More)
Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae are newly discovered invasive Phytophthoras causing leaf necrosis, shoot tip dieback (mostly on ornamental and forest understorey host species) and bleeding cankers on tree trunks of a wide range of plant species. Both pathogens are now present in southwest England. Sporulation occurs on infected shoots and foliage but(More)