Stina L. Urban

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Experimental murine herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 brain infection stimulates microglial cell-driven proinflammatory chemokine production which precedes the presence of brain-infiltrating systemic immune cells. In the present study, we investigated the phenotypes and infiltration kinetics of leukocyte trafficking into HSV-infected murine brains. Using(More)
Type 1 interferons (IFNs) were the first cytokines discovered and include IFNb, .ten forms of IFNa, and several other related molecules that all bind to the same type 1 IFN receptor (IFN1R). Type 1 IFNs are commonly referred to as ‘‘viral’’ IFNs because they can be induced directly by virus infections, in contrast to ‘‘immune’’ IFN, or IFNc, which is(More)
Vaccine-induced memory is necessary for protective immunity to pathogens, but many viruses induce a state of transient immune suppression that might contribute to the inability of a vaccine to elicit immunity. We evaluated here the fate of bystander T cells activated by third party cognate antigens during acute viral infections in vivo, using distinct(More)
Virus infections are known to induce a transient state of immune suppression often associated with an inhibition of T cell proliferation in response to mitogen or cognate-antigen stimulation. Recently, virus-induced immune suppression has been linked to responses to type 1 interferon (IFN), a signal 3 cytokine that normally can augment the proliferation and(More)
Vaccinia virus (VACV), a member of the Poxviridae family of large double-stranded DNA viruses, is being used as a smallpox vaccine as well as an expression vector for immunization against other infectious diseases and cancer. The host range of wild type VACV is very broad among mammalian cells. C7L is a host range gene identified in VACV and is well(More)
Naïve T cells, unlike memory T cells, exhibit very limited effector function in response to cognate antigen, but exposure to type 1 interferon (IFN) prior to cognate antigen allows for rapid manifestation of effector functions. A full assessment of the functions of these IFN-sensitized otherwise naïve T cells has not been made, nor has their capacity to be(More)
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