Stijn Smulders

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Nanomaterials can be contaminated with endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) during production or handling. In this study, we searched for a convenient in vitro method to evaluate endotoxin contamination in nanoparticle samples. We assessed the reliability of the commonly used limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay and an alternative method based on toll-like(More)
Pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) may affect, in addition to pulmonary toxicity, the cardiovascular system such as procoagulant effects, vascular dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis. However, only few studies have investigated hemostatic effects after pulmonary exposure. We used Bmal1 (brain and muscle ARNT-like protein-1) knockout(More)
Nano-silicon dioxide (SiO2) is used nowadays in several biomedical applications such as drug delivery and cancer therapy, and is produced on an industrial scale as additive to paints and coatings, cosmetics and food. Data regarding the long-term biokinetics of SiO2 engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is lacking. In this study, the whole-body biodistribution of(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on skin sensitization caused by chemicals. OBJECTIVES We determined the ability of different ENPs (TiO2 , Ag and SiO2 ) and aged paint particles containing ENPs to modulate dermal sensitization by a known potent dermal sensitizer. METHODS The fur of BALB/c mice in the area(More)
The unique physicochemical properties of nanomaterials has led to an increased use in the paint and coating industry. In this study, the in vitro toxicity of three pristine ENPs (TiO2, Ag and SiO₂), three aged paints containing ENPs (TiO₂, Ag and SiO₂) and control paints without ENPs were compared. In a first experiment, cytotoxicity was assessed using a(More)
Diisocyanates are an important cause of chemical-induced occupational asthma. This type of immunologically mediated asthma is often characterized by a predominant granulocytic inflammation in the airways, rather than an infiltration by lymphocytes. We sought to determine the contribution of granulocytes in the outcome of chemical-induced asthma using(More)
The unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have led to their increased use in many industrial applications, including as a paint additive. For example, titanium dioxide (TiO2) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have well-established anti-UV, self-cleaning, and air purification effects. Silver (Ag) ENPs are renowned for their anti-microbial(More)
We determined the ability of a model nanoparticle (NP) (titanium dioxide, TiO2) to modulate sensitization induced by a known potent dermal sensitizer (dinitrochlorobenzene) using a variant of the local lymph node assay called lymph node proliferation assay. BALB/c mice received sub-cutaneous injections of vehicle (2.5 mM sodium citrate), TiO2 NPs (0.004,(More)
Large knowledge gaps still exist on the toxicological mechanisms of silver (Ag) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs); a comprehensive understanding of the sources, biodistribution, toxicity and transformation of Ag ENPs along their life cycle and after transfer in living organisms is needed. In a previous study, mice were pulmonary exposed to Ag ENPs and local(More)
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