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DNA damage is believed to be the main cause of the antiproliferative effect of cisplatin, a cornerstone agent in anticancer therapy. However, cisplatin can be expected to react also with nucleophiles other than DNA. Using enucleated cells (cytoplasts) we demonstrate here that cisplatin-induced apoptotic signaling may occur independently of DNA damage.(More)
Cytokeratins are released from carcinoma cells by unclear mechanisms and are commonly used serum tumor markers (TPA, TPS, and CYFRA 21-1). We here report that soluble cytokeratin-18 (CK18) is released from human carcinoma cells during cell death. During necrosis, the cytosolic pool of soluble CK18 was released, whereas apoptosis was associated with(More)
Calpain is a ubiquitous protease with potential involvement in apoptosis. We report that in human melanoma cells, cisplatin-induced calpain activation occurs early in apoptosis. Calpain activation and subsequent apoptosis were inhibited by calpeptin and PD150606, two calpain inhibitors with different modes of action. Furthermore, cisplatin induced cleavage(More)
Ubiquitin-tagged substrates are degraded by the 26S proteasome, which is a multisubunit complex comprising a proteolytic 20S core particle capped by 19S regulatory particles. The approval of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma validated the 20S core particle as an anticancer drug target. Here we describe the small molecule b-AP15 as a(More)
PURPOSE With a widening arsenal of cancer therapies available, it is important to develop therapy-specific predictive markers and methods to rapidly assess treatment efficacy. We here evaluated the use of cytokeratin-18 (CK18) as a serum biomarker for monitoring chemotherapy-induced cell death in breast cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Different molecular(More)
Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 fragments (M30 antigen) can be detected in the circulation of patients with carcinoma and are believed to reflect cell death of tumors of epithelial origin. M30 antigens cleaved at Asp396 are detected using an epitope-specific antibody (M30 antibody). We here measured the levels of such fragments in patients with lung cancer(More)
The expression level of stromelysin-3 (ST3) mRNA was analyzed by in situ hybridization of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary breast-tumor samples from 76 patients. Digital image analysis of the dark-field in situ hybridization signal was used to measure the maximal level of ST3 expression in each tumor. All 55 invasive ductal carcinomas and 9 of 10(More)
Cisplatin is a broad-spectrum anticancer drug that is also widely used in experimental studies on DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis within 24-48 hr requires cisplatin concentrations that are at least one order of magnitude higher than the IC(50). Here, we show that such high, apoptosis-inducing cisplatin concentrations induce cellular(More)
We have developed an apoptosis assay based on measurement of a neoepitope of cytokeratin-18 (CK18-Asp396) exposed after caspase-cleavage and detected by the monoclonal antibody M30. The total amount of caspase-cleaved CK18 which has accumulated in cells and tissue culture media during apoptosis is measured by ELISA. The sensitivity is sufficient for use in(More)
Proteasome inhibitors have demonstrated that targeting protein degradation is effective therapy in multiple myeloma (MM). Here we show that deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) USP14 and UCHL5 are more highly expressed in MM cells than in normal plasma cells. USP14 and UCHL5 short interfering RNA knockdown decreases MM cell viability. A novel 19S regulatory(More)