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BACKGROUND Urine within the urinary tract is commonly regarded as "sterile" in cultivation terms. Here, we present a comprehensive in-depth study of bacterial 16S rDNA sequences associated with urine from healthy females by means of culture-independent high-throughput sequencing techniques. RESULTS Sequencing of the V1V2 and V6 regions of the 16S(More)
Interstitial Cystitis (IC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community present in the urine from IC female patients by 454 high throughput sequencing of the 16S variable regions V1V2 and V6. The taxonomical composition, richness and diversity of the IC microbiota(More)
The amino acid residues critical for interaction between herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein C (gC-1) and cell surface heparan sulphate (HS) were localized to two separate regions within antigenic site II of this glycoprotein. These amino acids were Arg-143, Arg-145, Arg-147 and Thr-150 in one region and Gly-247 in the other. This conclusion is(More)
To monitor the evolving molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of HIV in a country where many distinct strains cocirculate, we performed genetic analyses on sequences from 75 HIV-1-infected Cameroonians: 74 were group M and 1 was group O. Of the group M sequences, 74 were classified into the following env gp41 subtypes or recombinant forms: CRF02 (n =(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected women. METHODS Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654) were recruited(More)
Paired sera and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from nine surviving patients were collected 4.5 to 8 years after acute herpes simplex (HS) virus encephalitis. Oligoclonal bands of IgG were detected in the CSF of all, and seven patients had an elevated CSF IgG index. Antibodies to HS, varicella-zoster (VZ), measles, and cytomegalo viruses were analysed by(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with advanced HIV infection at the time of diagnosis and patients not responding to antiretroviral therapy are at risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Earlier studies of patients with HIV infection have demonstrated that the diagnosis is often first made post-mortem. In recent years new molecular biological tests have become available(More)
INTRODUCTION Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is described as urgency, with or without urgency incontinence. A range of medical conditions shares the symptoms of OAB, however the diagnosis is contingent on the exclusion of urinary tract infection (UTI). Knowing that urine dipstick and routine culture of bacteria can miss UTI diagnosis caused by low-count(More)
Varying titres of secretory IgA antibodies to poliovirus type 1 were found previously in the milk of unvaccinated, lactating Pakistani mothers during two different years, reflecting the antigenic exposure on mucosal membranes. To study further the changes in the extent and the form of antigenic exposure reflected in the human milk, human milk samples from(More)
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