Stewart L. Fisher

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Mutations reducing the functional activity of leptin, the leptin receptor, α–melanocyte stimulating hormone (α–MSH) and the melanocortin–4 receptor (Mc4r) all lead to obesity in mammals. Moreover, mutant mice that ectopically express either agouti (Ay/a mice) or agouti–related protein (Agrp), antagonists of melanocortin signalling, become obese. These data(More)
Induction of vancomycin resistance in the Gram-positive Enterococci requires a two-componet regulatory system, VanS and VanR, for transcriptional activation of three genes (vanH, A, X) that encode enzymes for a cell wall biosynthetic pathway that produces an altered peptidoglycan intermediate with lower affinity for the antibiotic. The catalytic efficiency(More)
Two-component regulatory systems require highly specific interactions between histidine kinase (transmitter) and response regulator (receiver) proteins. We have developed a novel genetic strategy that is based on tightly regulated synthesis of a given protein to identify domains and residues of an interacting protein that are critical for interactions(More)
Glutamate racemase is an enzyme essential to the bacterial cell wall biosynthesis pathway, and has therefore been considered as a target for antibacterial drug discovery. We characterized the glutamate racemases of several pathogenic bacteria using structural and biochemical approaches. Here we describe three distinct mechanisms of regulation for the family(More)
VanS is a two-component transmembrane sensory kinase that, together with its response regulator VanR, activates the expression of genes responsible for vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium BM4147. In this report, we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of VanS (including residues Met95 to Ser384) is capable of high level activation (> 500 fold)(More)
A plasmid-borne transposon encodes enzymes and regulator proteins that confer resistance of enterococcal bacteria to the antibiotic vancomycin. Purification and characterization of individual proteins encoded by this operon has helped to elucidate the molecular basis of vancomycin resistance. This new understanding provides opportunities for intervention to(More)
Avibactam is a β-lactamase inhibitor that is in clinical development, combined with β-lactam partners, for the treatment of bacterial infections comprising gram-negative organisms. Avibactam is a structural class of inhibitor that does not contain a β-lactam core but maintains the capacity to covalently acylate its β-lactamase targets. Using the TEM-1(More)
An Escherichia coli K-12 model system was developed for studying the VanS-VanR two-component regulatory system required for high-level inducible vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium BM4147. Our model system is based on the use of reporter strains with lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions to the PvanR or PvanH promoter of the vanRSHAX gene(More)
Avibactam is a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor with a spectrum of activity that includes β-lactamase enzymes of classes A, C, and selected D examples. In this work acylation and deacylation rates were measured against the clinically important enzymes CTX-M-15, KPC-2, Enterobacter cloacae AmpC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC, OXA-10, and OXA-48. The(More)
The bacterial UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine ligase (MurC) from Escherichia coli, an essential, cytoplasmic peptidoglycan biosynthetic enzyme, catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of L-alanine (Ala) and UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid (UNAM) to form UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine (UNAM-Ala). The phosphinate inhibitor 1 was designed and prepared as a(More)