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The evaluation and management of patients with minor head injury (MHI: history of loss of consciousness or posttraumatic amnesia and a GCS score greater than 12) remain controversial. Recommendations vary from routine admission without computed tomographic (CT) scanning to mandatory CT scanning and admission to CT scanning without admission for selected(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that mild head injuries in humans can result in cumulative damage. No investigation to date has considered the effects of multiple subacute mild head injuries in an animal model. METHODS Forty-one male Long-Evans hooded rats were trained in a Morris water maze. All animals were fitted with a hollow intracranial screw.(More)
BACKGROUND Experimental and clinical work has suggested that hypertonic saline (HTS) would be better than lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) for the resuscitation of patients with head injuries. No clinical study has examined the effect of HTS infusion on intracranial pressure (ICP) and outcome in patients with head injuries. We hypothesized that HTS infusion(More)
Survival of children (< 17 years) with severe head injuries (Glascow Coma Scale [GCS] score < 8) has been shown to be better than that of adults. The addition of hypotension (HT) or hypoxia (H) has a deleterious effect on outcome in adults but no information is currently available about their effects in children. Over a 5-year period, 58 children with GCS(More)
Severe head injury is the leading cause of traumatic death. When a severe head injury is combined with hypotension the mortality doubles. The use of asanguineous salt solutions to maintain blood pressure, however, may contribute to cerebral swelling and intracranial hypertension. For this reason, restrictions of fluids (FLD) and sodium (Na) have been(More)
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a devastating complication in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Prophylactic measures such as venous compression hose or low-dose heparin are only partially protective in reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism and are contraindicated in some patients. Because of extended perturbations in fibrinolytic activity,(More)
Outcome after head injury appears to be adversely affected by secondary insults such as hypoxia or hypotension. Previous work examining the influence of these secondary insults on outcome has originated from urban environments with organized systems of trauma care. We hypothesized that secondary insults would be more frequent and that outcome of severe head(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnosis of blunt cervical arterial injury (CAI) is made difficult by its infrequent occurrence and delayed presentation. Beginning in January of 1995, we used computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the neck to screen for CAI. We hypothesized that CTA could be incorporated into the workup of patients sustaining blunt neck injury as a(More)
Twenty patients with documented cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections were treated with daily intraventricular injections of methicillin, cephalothin, or gentamicin without removal of the shunt or external ventricular drainage. Periodic determinations of intraventricular antibiotic concentration revealed significant levels in relation to the established(More)
Primary tumours of the thalamus are rare and present several diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Cystic thalamic lesions tend to be low grade astrocytomas and have only been reported in children. Signs and symptoms can be divided into those due to intracranial hypertension and those due to loss of function of thalamic nuclei and surrounding structures.(More)