Steven W. Meinhardt

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New diseases of humans, animals and plants emerge regularly. Enhanced virulence on a new host can be facilitated by the acquisition of novel virulence factors. Interspecific gene transfer is known to be a source of such virulence factors in bacterial pathogens (often manifested as pathogenicity islands in the recipient organism) and it has been speculated(More)
ABSTRACT Culture filtrate from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis race 1 isolate 78-62 contained a genotype-specific toxin which elicited extensive chlorosis on sensitive wheat genotypes. This toxin was partially purified using gel filtration, ion exchange, and reversed-phase chromatography. The chlorosis toxin was found to be a polar, nonionic,(More)
ABSTRACT A toxin, designated SnTox1, was partially purified from culture filtrates of isolate Sn2000 of Stagonospora nodorum, the causal agent of wheat leaf and glume blotch. The toxin showed selective action on several different wheat genotypes, indicating that it is a host-selective toxin (HST). The toxic activity was reduced when incubated at 50 degrees(More)
We recently showed that the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum produces proteinaceous host-selective toxins (HSTs). These toxins include SnTox1 as well as SnToxA, a HST first identified from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis that was implicated in a very recent horizontal gene transfer event from S. nodorum to P. tritici-repentis. Compelling evidence(More)
Plant disease resistance is often conferred by genes with nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) or serine/threonine protein kinase (S/TPK) domains. Much less is known about mechanisms of susceptibility, particularly to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. The pathogens that cause the diseases tan spot and Stagonospora nodorum blotch on wheat(More)
ABSTRACT The fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis produces a toxin (Ptr ToxA) that causes rapid cell necrosis in sensitive wheat genotypes. A single recessive gene (tsn1) on chromosome 5BL in common wheat confers insensitivity to this toxin. Our objectives were to analyze the allelic relationships of genotypes that have shown insensitivity to a P.(More)
(1) The role of the ubiquinone pool in the reactions of the cyclic electron-transfer chain has been investigated by observing the effects of reduction of the ubiquinone pool on the kinetics and extent of the cytochrome and electrochromic carotenoid absorbance changes following flash illumination. (2) In the presence of antimycin, flash-induced reduction of(More)
ABSTRACT Stagonospora nodorum leaf blotch is an economically important foliar disease in the major wheat-growing areas of the world. In related work, we identified a host-selective toxin (HST) produced by the S. nodorum isolate Sn2000 and determined the chromosomal location of the host gene (Snn1) conditioning sensitivity to the toxin using the(More)
ABSTRACT Cultivar-specific toxic metabolites of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis are involved in the appearance of necrotic and chlorotic foliar lesions characteristic of tan spot. A P. tritici-repentis necrosis-inducing toxin, Ptr necrosis toxin, was purified from isolate 86-124, sequenced by gas-phase amino acid microsequencing, and characterized by circular(More)
The wheat tan spot fungus (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) produces a well-characterized host-selective toxin (HST) known as Ptr ToxA, which induces necrosis in genotypes that harbor the Tsn1 gene on chromosome 5B. In previous work, we showed that the Stagonospora nodorum isolate Sn2000 produces at least 2 HSTs (SnTox1 and SnToxA). Sensitivity to SnTox1 is(More)