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BACKGROUND Herpesviruses establish latent infections in their hosts for life. The scarcity of data that exists in regard to herpesvirus infections in many African regions, could partly be due to the mild nature of their primary infections and the lack of means for their proper diagnosis. However, in recent decades the alarming spread of HIV infection in(More)
The emergence of azidothymidine (AZT)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) variants in clinical samples was studied by a direct genomic sequencing method. Sequential lymphocyte samples from four patients, who had been treated with AZT for up to 27 months, were shown to gradually accumulate multiple nucleotide changes, some of which are known to be(More)
Thymidylate synthetase catalyses the formation of thymidine monophosphate from deoxyuridine monophosphate. Purified thymidylate synthetase can be assayed radiochemically using labelled deoxyuridine monophosphate as substrate, but cells are impervious to deoxyuridine monophosphate and so intracellular thymidylate synthetase activity cannot be assayed in this(More)
We determined the susceptibility to antiviral drugs of clinical isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes A, B, C, D, and E. Isolates from treated and untreated patients were tested for sensitivity to zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), didanosine (ddI), nevirapine (NVP), foscarnet (PFA), and ritonavir (RNV). The susceptibility to(More)
For the determination of cellular deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) by high-performance liquid chromatography, the choice of extracting agent and periodate oxidation procedure is important for accurate results. Different extraction methods were compared using either cold methanol or trichloroacetic acid for extraction of dNTPs from lymphoblastoid cells.(More)
The sensitivity of primary isolates of HIV-2 to the antiretroviral drugs 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), and 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine (FLT) was measured in vitro in PBMCs and compared to that of primary isolates of HIV-1. HIV-2 isolates showed a similar sensitivity to the drugs compared to HIV-1 isolates. Both the relative(More)
The rate of reversion from azidothymidine (zidovudine; AZT) resistance was studied by direct sequencing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion RNA in sera from four patients who discontinued long-term treatment. Before cessation of treatment, all four patients harbored HIV-1 with multiple mutations reported to confer AZT resistance. In three(More)
The intracellular phosphorylation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and 2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine was increased two- to threefold by the addition of hydroxyurea (HU) to the single drugs or to the two drugs in combination. The ratios of drug triphosphate to competing cellular deoxynucleoside triphosphate were increased two- to threefold for both(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the prevalence of infections in different population groups in Africa, and about the influence of living conditions on the spread of infections. This study is the first of its kind in the state of Eritrea and is expected to serve as an evaluation of the situation in the country. OBJECTIVE A serosurvey for human(More)
The compound 2,3-dimethyl-6(2-dimethylaminoethyl)6H-indolo-(2,3-b)quinoxaline (B-220) has been shown to exhibit potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). The mechanism of antiviral action of B-220 against HSV-1 has been studied; from the results it appears that B-220 binds(More)