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BACKGROUND Several epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and exposure to heavy metals using subjective exposure measurements. OBJECTIVES We investigated the association between objective chronic occupational lead exposure and the risk of PD. METHODS We enrolled 121 PD patients and 414 age, sex, and race,(More)
Underreporting tuberculosis (TB) cases can compromise surveillance. We evaluated the contribution of pharmacy data in three different managed-care settings and geographic areas. Persons with more than two anti-TB medications were identified by using pharmacy databases. Active TB was confirmed by using state TB registries, medical record review, or(More)
BACKGROUND Family-based association testing is an important part of genetic epidemiology. Tests are available to include multiple siblings, unaffected offspring, and to adjust for environmental covariates. We explore a susceptibility residual method of adjustment for covariates. RESULTS Through simulation, we show that environmental adjustments that(More)
Part I of this Article provides a brief overview of the dominant discourse on linkages, which focuses on whether World Trade Organization (" WTO ") rules should be modified (or interpreted) to permit trade restrictions on environmental and labor rights grounds. Those fully familiar with the competing conventional approaches to trade-environment and(More)
BACKGROUND Gene x environment models are widely used to assess genetic and environmental risks and their association with a phenotype of interest for many complex diseases. Mixed generalized linear models were used to assess gene x environment interactions with respect to systolic blood pressure on sibships adjusting for repeated measures and hierarchical(More)
Background: Gene × environment models are widely used to assess genetic and environmental risks and their association with a phenotype of interest for many complex diseases. Mixed generalized linear models were used to assess gene × environment interactions with respect to systolic blood pressure on sibships adjusting for repeated measures and hierarchical(More)
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