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BACKGROUND Use of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) for confirmation of presence of biliary obstruction is virtually risk-free. However, unlike diagnostic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), no therapeutic option can be offered simultaneously with MRCP. The aim of the study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of MRCP when(More)
Leukoplakia is an asymptomatic, potentially malignant change in the oral mucosa. Previous studies have reported that smoking and betel quid chewing are associated with increased risk of leukoplakia; few studies have reported on these associations in populations where betel quid does not contain tobacco. We conducted a case-control study nested in a(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of the anabolic agent oxandrolone on muscle protein and gene expression in severely burned children. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA The authors previously showed that oxandrolone increased net muscle protein synthesis in emaciated burned patients receiving delayed treatment for severe burns. They hypothesized that similar(More)
Burn injury remains a constant source of morbidity and mortality in the military environment. The logistic constraints of combat casualty care can make it impossible to provide the large volumes of crystalloid typically used for burn resuscitation. Unlike penetrating trauma, the immediate and sustained fluid requirements necessary for resuscitation of(More)
The authors conducted a study in humans to determine the mediators associated with acute pulmonary vaso- and broncho-constriction occurring episodically with protamine reversal of heparin anticoagulation. Of 48 adult patients investigated prospectively after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass, two presented a sudden increase of airway pressure, acute(More)
BACKGROUND Dietary modifications and supplements are used widely by patients with cancer and preinvasive lesions as an adjunct to standard treatment. Given the widespread use of nutritional modifications and supplements by such patients and concerns about the lack of benefit and possible harm, we conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials(More)
The management of orbital blowout fractures is controversial. The continuing debate includes the use of antibiotics and steroids, imaging, the surgical approach, and the choice of implant material for repair of the bony defect.A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess current practice in treating orbital blowout fractures in the UK, in the form of a(More)
BACKGROUND The hypermetabolic response to burn increases protein catabolism. Euglycemic hyperinsu-linemia with exogenous insulin maintains muscle protein by continued stimulation of net protein synthesis. Our aim was to determine the effect of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia over the entire hospitalization on muscle anabolism by investigating lean body mass(More)
Although there have been encouraging recent studies showing a potential benefit from annual mammography in women aged 40–49 years of age with an elevated breast cancer risk due to family history there is little evidence of efficacy in women aged <40 years of age. A prospective study (FH02) has been developed to assess the efficacy of mammography screening(More)
Thalidomide is used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated conditions, including aphthous ulcers and wasting syndrome. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a formulation of thalidomide with improved bioavailability in HIV-infected persons was examined in a placebo-controlled, dose-escalating phase 1 study. Subjects with CD4 cell(More)