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The skull is distinguished from other parts of the skeleton by its composite construction. The sutures between bony elements provide for interstitial growth of the cranium, but at the same time they alter the transmission of stress and strain through the skull. Strain gages were bonded to the frontal and parietal bones of miniature pigs and across the(More)
The morphology of bony trabeculae can indicate the loading conditions that predominate near joint surfaces. This study reports principal orientation, anisotropy, thickness, separation and density of trabeculae in the mandibular condyle of pigs. Condyles from slaughterhouse pigs were serially sectioned anteroposteriorly (n = 4), mediolaterally (n = 5) or(More)
BACKGROUND Stereological analysis of trabecular bone structure may reveal information about regional variations in stress distribution, especially in areas like the zygomatic arch in which those variations are difficult to assess mechanically. This study investigates regional differences in trabecular orientation, thickness, and density in the zygomatic and(More)
BACKGROUND The transmission of force through the skull is complicated by the irregular form of the bones, the interposed sutures, and the multiplicity of loads from the teeth, muscles, and environment. The in vivo relationship between bone strain and muscle function in the mammalian skull is best investigated empirically. METHODS We studied the zygomatic(More)
Most researchers agree that the primate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is loaded compressively during function and that condylar position must play a role in mediating such loads. However, the precise nature of that role remains unclear. Using a pig model in this study, we attempted to analyze strain on the neck of the condyle during normal mastication and(More)
Stereologic studies of trabecular architecture suggest that the pig mandibular condyle is strongest when loaded supero-inferiorly, and that stress is concentrated in the antero-inferior region (Teng and Herring, 1995). To test these hypotheses, we investigated the uni-axial mechanical properties of 22 pig mandibular condyles in three loading directions at a(More)
Several authors have speculated that muscles contracting adjacent to bony surfaces may cause compressive loads against the bone and thus influence skull development. This study was undertaken to evaluate the premise of this argument. A flat, semiconductor pressure transducer was surgically placed on bony surfaces beneath muscle attachments. Pressures were(More)
In this paper, a novel reconstruction method is presented for Near Infrared (NIR) 2-D imaging to recover optical absorption coefficients from laboratory phantom data. The main body of this work validates a new generation of highly efficient reconstruction algorithms called “Globally Convergent Method” (GCM) based upon actual measurements taken from(More)
Background: Esophageal cancer is a highly lethal malignancy. Esophageal resection remains the primary treatment in most centers. A number of approaches to esophageal resection have been described. Methods: The authors review the current approaches to esophageal resection and adjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer. Results: Transthoracic, transhiatal, and(More)
PURPOSE In orthognathic surgery, rigid fixation is routinely used to hold together bone fragments that may experience heavy force from attached masticatory muscles. Internal fixation plates are assumed to hold bony parts rigidly, but the mobility at such sites subjected to normal masticatory function has not been measured. The purpose of this study was to(More)
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