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The potential for inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation to act as inhibitors of muscle protein degradation in cancer cachexia has been evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of NF-kappaB is important in the induction of proteasome expression and protein degradation by the tumour factor, proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF), since(More)
Induction of lipolysis in murine white adipocytes, and stimulation of adenylate cyclase in adipocyte plasma membranes, by a tumour-produced lipid mobilizing factor, was attenuated by low concentrations (10(-7)--10(-5)M) of the specific beta3-adrenoceptor antagonist SR59230A. Lipid mobilizing factor (250 nM) produced comparable increases in intracellular(More)
Loss of adipose tissue in cancer cachexia in mice bearing the MAC16 tumour arises from an increased lipid mobilisation through increased expression of zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) in white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue. Glucocorticoids have been suggested to increase ZAG expression, and this study examines their role in cachexia and the mechanisms(More)
Attenuation of depression of muscle protein synthesis induced by lipopolysaccharide, tumor necro-sis factor, and angiotensin II by ␤-hydroxy-␤-methylbutyrate.methylbutyrate (HMB; 50 ␮M) has been shown to attenuate the depression in protein synthesis in murine myotubes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-␣ (TNF-␣) with or without(More)
The ability of angiotensin I (Ang I) and II (Ang II) to induce directly protein degradation in skeletal muscle has been studied in murine myotubes. Angiotensin I stimulated protein degradation with a parabolic dose-response curve and with a maximal effect between 0.05 and 0.1 microM. The effect was attenuated by coincubation with the angiotensin-converting(More)
Extensive loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia but the cellular and molecular basis remains unclear. This study has examined morphologic and molecular characteristics of white adipose tissue in mice bearing a cachexia-inducing tumour, MAC16. Adipose tissue from tumour-bearing mice contained shrunken adipocytes that were heterogeneous in(More)
The abnormalities of lipid metabolism observed in cancer cachexia may be induced by a lipid-mobilizing factor produced by adenocarcinomas. The specific molecules and metabolic pathways that mediate the actions of lipid-mobilizing factor are not known. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins-1, -2 and -3 are suggested to play essential roles in energy(More)
Muscle protein degradation is thought to play a major role in muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia. To investigate the importance of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which has been suggested to be the main degradative pathway mediating progressive protein loss in cachexia, the expression of mRNA for proteasome subunits C2 and C5 as well as the(More)
Treatment of ex-breeder male NMRI mice with lipid mobilising factor isolated from the urine of cachectic cancer patients, caused a significant increase in glucose oxidation to CO2 compared with control mice receiving phosphate buffered saline. Glucose utilisation by various tissues was determined by the 2-deoxyglucose tracer technique and shown to be(More)
Atrophy of skeletal muscle is due to a depression in protein synthesis and an increase in degradation. Studies in vitro have suggested that activation of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) may be responsible for these changes in protein synthesis and degradation. In order to evaluate whether this is also applicable to cancer cachexia the action of a(More)