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OVERVIEW The authors propose updated and revised nomenclature, definitions and classification for tooth surface lesions. Their objective is standardization, clarity and clinical utility for the dental practitioner. The article presents a schema of the pathodynamic mechanisms in the formation of tooth surface lesions--three basic physical and chemical(More)
Self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells are regulated by cytokines and growth factors through tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling pathways. In murine ES cells, signals for self-renewal are generated by the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF and other growth factors are linked to the activation of the Src family of cytoplasmic(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are implicated in the regulation of cell differentiation, although their precise roles in many differentiation programs remain elusive. The Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase cascade has been proposed to both promote and inhibit adipogenesis. Here, we titrate expression of the molecular(More)
Lumiflavin was prepared by photolysis of an alkaline aqueous solution of riboflavin (Knowles and Roe, 1968). As a solvent we used triply distilled water, as buffers (0,2 M) (Schwabe, 1958): pH 1-3'7 sodium acetate, hydrochloric acid pH 3·7-5·6 sodium acetate, acetic acid pH 6-12 potassium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium hydroxide pH 13 potassium chloride,(More)
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) is constitutively activated by BCR/ABL, the oncogenic tyrosine kinase responsible for chronic myelogenous leukemia. The mechanism of BCR/ABL-mediated STAT5 activation is unknown. We show here that the BCR/ABL SH3 and SH2 domains interact with hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck), leading to the(More)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is defined by the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, which results in the expression of the 210 kDa Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. Bcr-Abl constitutively activates several signaling proteins important for the proliferation and survival of myeloid progenitors, including the Src family kinases Hck and Lyn, the Stat5(More)
STAT3 is a member of a family of transcription factors with Src homology 2 (SH2) domains that are activated by tyrosine phosphorylation in response to a wide variety of cytokines and growth factors. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of STAT3 activation by the Src family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, which have been linked to STAT activation in(More)
Maximum-intensity projection (MIP) algorithms, a class of algorithms for construction of magnetic resonance (MR) angiograms, are reviewed. The blood flow in a volume of interest is represented by bright intensities in the MR data volume. MIP algorithms search for the maximum intensity along parallel rays cast through the MR image volume. A projection image(More)
As part of its nonprofit mission, ETS conducts and disseminates the results of research to advance quality and equity in education and assessment for the benefit of ETS's constituents and the field. To obtain a PDF or a print copy of a report, please visit: Abstract This paper examines various definitions and frameworks that have been used to justify the(More)
It is important to understand any process that affects medical data. Once the data have changed from the original form, one must consider the possibility that the information contained in the data has also changed. In general, false negative and false positive diagnoses caused by this post-processing must be minimized. Medical imaging is one area in which(More)
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