Learn More
The continuous presence of a supportive companion (doula) during labor and delivery in two studies in Guatemala shortened labor and reduced the need for cesarean section and other interventions. In a US hospital with modern obstetric practices, 412 healthy nulliparous women in labor were randomly assigned to a supported group (n = 212) that received the(More)
The spontaneous movements of human fetuses were studied longitudinally between 21 and 41 weeks of gestation. At each age, spectral analysis of the fluctuations in fetal movement revealed strong cyclic patterns. The frequency of the dominant motor rhythms ranged from .13 to 1.91 cycles per minute. The strength of oscillations between .18 and 1.02 cycles per(More)
Does real time coupling between mental and physical activity early in development have functional significance? To address this question, we examined the habituation of visual attention and the subsequent response to change in two groups of 3-month-olds with different patterns of movement-attention coupling. In suppressors, the typical decrease in body(More)
The normal development of adaptive behavior in humans depends on the integration of visual attention and body movement, yet little is known about the initial state of movement-attention coupling at the beginning of postnatal life. We studied 1- and 3-month-old infants during extended periods of visual exploration and found that spontaneous shifts of gaze(More)
Persistent, irregular fluctuations in spontaneous motor activity are common in the young of many vertebrate species, but whether the irregularity is intrinsic to the dynamics of motor activation or the result of random perturbations is not known. Analysis of the second-by-second variation in the general body movement of awake human infants 1 and 3 months(More)
Fluctuations in body movement and visual inspection were measured over minutes in 3-month-old infants to look for evidence of coupling. In Experiment 1, infants (n = 12) looked ad libitum at two identical pictures for an average of 7.3 min. Analysis of the spontaneous fluctuations in movement and inspection revealed that they were inversely coupled:(More)
The spontaneous movement of 41 healthy human newborns was analyzed for cyclic patterns during different behavioral states and also compared to similar data obtained during their last few months of gestation. Spectral analysis was used to identify and quantify the motility cycles, except in quiet sleep, for which the instantaneous frequency of the isolated(More)
The temporal organization of spontaneous movement in healthy, awake neonates was studied on the second or third day after birth. Movement was recorded using time lapse photography and quantified as a function of time. Fourier analysis was then used to partition the total variance of each neonate's time-based data into independent components in the frequency(More)
The prenatal development of cyclic motility (CM) in the human is disrupted by maternal diabetes, but appears normal by the end of gestation. To determine whether birth and adaptation to postnatal life reveal new or persisting abnormalities in CM, 24 newborn infants of insulin-dependent diabetic mothers (IDMs) and 24 normal newborns were studied for 2-4 hr(More)