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Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, progressive condition arising from a variety of genetic and pathogenic causes. Patients present with a spectrum of histologic and pathophysiological features, likely reflecting the diversity in underlying pathogenesis. It is widely recognized that structural alterations in the vascular wall contribute to all forms of(More)
Embolic insults account for a significant number of neurologic sequelae following many routine surgical procedures. Clearly, these post-intervention embolic events are a serious public health issue as they are potentially life altering. However, the pathway these emboli utilize to bypass the pulmonary microcirculatory sieve in patients without an(More)
The mechanism or mechanisms that cause intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) to either open during exercise in subjects breathing room air and at rest when breathing hypoxic gas mixtures, or to close during exercise while breathing 100% oxygen, remain unknown. During conditions when IPAVA are open, plasma epinephrine (EPI) and dopamine (DA)(More)
In the lung, acute reductions in oxygen lead to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas prolonged exposures to hypoxia result in sustained vasoconstriction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, and the development of pulmonary hypertension. Data from both human subjects and animal models implicate a role for hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), oxygen-sensitive(More)
RATIONALE Adults born very to extremely preterm, with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), have obstructive lung disease, but it is unknown whether this results in respiratory limitations, such as mechanical constraints to Vt expansion during exercise leading to intolerable dyspnea and reduced exercise tolerance, as it does in patients with chronic(More)
Concern has been raised that altering the fraction of inspired O₂ (Fi(O₂)) could accelerate or decelerate microbubble dissolution time within the pulmonary vasculature and thereby invalidate the ability of saline contrast echocardiography to detect intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt in subjects breathing either a low or a high Fi(O₂). The present study(More)
Intrapulmonary arteriovenous (IPAV) shunting has been shown to occur at rest in some subjects breathing a hypoxic gas mixture [fraction of inspired oxygen (FI(O(2))) = 0.12] for brief periods of time. In the present study we set out to determine if IPAV shunting could be induced at rest in all subjects exposed to hypoxia for 30 min. Twelve subjects (6(More)
Our purpose was to report the prevalence of healthy, young, asymptomatic humans who demonstrate left heart contrast at rest, breathing room air. We evaluated 176 subjects (18-41 years old) using transthoracic saline contrast echocardiography. Left heart contrast appearing ≤3 cardiac cycles, consistent with a patent foramen ovale (PFO), was detected in 67(More)
An understanding of human responses to hypoxia is important for the health of millions of people worldwide who visit, live, or work in the hypoxic environment encountered at high altitudes. In spite of dozens of studies over the last 100 years, the basic mechanisms controlling acclimatization to hypoxia remain largely unknown. The AltitudeOmics project(More)
Adults with a history of very preterm birth (<32 wk gestational age; PRET) have reduced lung function and significantly lower lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) relative to individuals born at term (CONT). Low DLCO may predispose PRET to diffusion limitation during exercise, particularly while breathing hypoxic gas because of a reduced O2(More)