Steven R. Wininger

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The purpose of these studies was to examine the psychometric properties of the Exercise Motivation Scale (EMS). One hundred forty-three undergraduates were surveyed in Study 1. Internal consistency reliability estimates ranged from .75 to .90 for the eight subscales. Discriminant validity was established via non-significant correlations with social(More)
Participating in regular physical activity results in many positive physical and psychological effects. Even though this is widely known, the majority of Americans do not engage in regular physical activity and many persons who start an exercise program drop out shortly thereafter. A question of central importance is "What motivates a person to adhere to an(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music preference and exercise intensity on exercise enjoyment, perceived exertion (RPE), and attentional focus. Participants were assigned to 1 of 3 music preference conditions (most preferred, least preferred, or no music) and walked/ran on a treadmill at 1 of 3 exercise intensities (low, moderate, or(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the barrier efficacy and cognitive evaluation theory with regard to predicting exercise attendance. Participants consisted of 189 undergraduates attending not-for-credit fitness classes at a regional comprehensive university in the Midwest. A revised 17-item version of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory was used to(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the "sense of relief" effect as a potential explanation for improvement of affect following exercise. The current study included male and female participants, four exercise/expectancy conditions, and assessed six dimensions of affective space. Participants were 134 undergraduates. Heart rate and affect were assessed(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between exercise enjoyment and participant's perceptions of selected characteristics of the exercise instructor and exercise class. Women (N=296) attending aerobics classes at a university fitness center were surveyed. Analysis yielded significant correlations among exercise enjoyment and the four(More)
this study compares academically gifted students who engage in sports to academically gifted students who do not engage in sports on measures of the multidimensional self-concept. Participants include 264 gifted adolescents who had completed the 6th through 10th grade during the previous academic year. Sports participation was measured by asking(More)
This study examined the anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) effects of exercise for elderly women engaging in a single bout of aqua aerobics. Volunteers (N=29) completed questionnaires immediately before and after participating in an aqua aerobics class. The average age of participants was 66.4 yr. A brief form of Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory and a(More)
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