Steven R. Scofield

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Progress in plant molecular biology has depended heavily on the availability of effective vectors for plant cell transformation and heterologous expression. In this paper we describe the structures of a wide array of plasmids which have proved extremely effective in (a) plant transformation, (b) expression of heterologous genes and (c) assaying the activity(More)
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an important tool for the analysis of gene function in plants. In VIGS, viruses engineered to carry sequences derived from plant gene transcripts activate the host's sequence-specific RNA degradation system. This mechanism targets the RNAs of the viral genome for degradation, and as the virus contains transcribed plant(More)
In tomato, resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) strains expressing the avirulence gene avrPto requires the presence of at least two host genes, designated Pto and Prf. Here we report that Prf encodes a protein with leucine-zipper, nucleotide-binding, and leucine-rich repeat motifs, as are found in a number of resistance gene products from(More)
We have analyzed the pattern of germinal transpositions of artificial Dissociation (Ds) transposons in tomato. T-DNA constructs carrying Ds were transformed into tomato, and the elements were trans-activated by crossing to lines transformed with a stabilized Activator (sAc) that expressed the transposase gene. The sAc T-DNA carried a GUS gene to monitor its(More)
The Activator (Ac) element of maize is active at a low frequency in Arabidopsis. To determine whether this is due to poor expression of the Ac transposase gene, we obtained and studied 19 Arabidopsis transformants containing fusions of the octopine synthase (ocs), nopaline synthase (nos), cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S, or Ac promoters to the(More)
To explore the effects of altering the level of Activator (Ac) transposase (TPase) expression, a series of plasmids was constructed in which heterologous promoters were fused to the TPase gene. Promoters for the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S transcript and the octopine synthase (ocs) and nopaline synthase (nos) genes were tested. These fusions, and(More)
In contrast to its behavior in tobacco and tomato, the maize transposable element Ac is relatively inactive in Arabidopsis. We show here that removal of 537 by within a CpG-rich region of the Ac 5′ untranslated leader region significantly increases the excision frequency of the element in Arabidopsis. This increase did not appear to be correlated with the(More)
The maize Hm1 gene provides protection against a lethal leaf blight and ear mold disease caused by Cochliobolus carbonum race 1 (CCR1). Although it was the first disease-resistance (DR) gene to be cloned, it remains a novelty because, instead of participating in the plant recognition and response system as most DR genes do, Hm1 disarms the pathogen(More)
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) acts as a disease virulence factor for Fusarium fungi, and tolerance of DON enhances wheat resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. Two variants of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family C transporter gene were cloned from DON-treated wheat mRNA, namely TaABCC3.1 and TaABCC3.2. These represent two of three putative(More)