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Delivery of therapeutic proteins into tissues and across the blood-brain barrier is severely limited by the size and biochemical properties of the proteins. Here it is shown that intraperitoneal injection of the 120-kilodalton beta-galactosidase protein, fused to the protein transduction domain from the human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein, results in(More)
Several proteins can traverse biological membranes through protein transduction. Small sections of these proteins (10-16 residues long) are responsible for this. Linking these domains covalently to compounds, peptides, antisense peptide nucleic acids or 40-nm iron beads, or as in-frame fusions with full-length proteins, lets them enter any cell type in a(More)
The protein transduction domain (PTD) embedded in the HIV TAT protein (amino acids 47-57) has been shown to successfully mediate the introduction of heterologous peptides and proteins in excess of Mr 100,000 into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. We report here that the modeled structure of the TAT PTD is a strong amphipathic helix. On the basis of this(More)
Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a proapoptotic protein with intracellular functions in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Unexpectedly, we noted Par-4 protein is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells in culture, and by Par-4 transgenic mice that are resistant to spontaneous tumors. Short exposure to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions increase in abundance with age in many tissues, however, their calculated low levels (usually < 0.1%) in samples from tissue homogenates containing thousands of cells argue against physiologic significance. Through the analysis of defined numbers of cells (skeletal muscle fibers) from rhesus monkeys, we report that the(More)
Drosophila melanogaster displays an age-associated increase in oxidative damage and a decrease in mitochondrial transcripts. To determine if these changes result in energy production deficiencies, we measured the electron transport system (ETS) enzyme activity, and ATP levels with age. No statistically significant influences of age on activities of(More)
BACKGROUND Quinazoline-based α1-adrenoceptor antagonists suppress tumor growth by inducing apoptosis via an α1-adrenoceptor-independent action. Anoikis is a unique mode of apoptosis consequential to insufficient cell-matrix interactions. OBJECTIVE This study investigated the apoptotic effect of novel quinazoline-based compounds on human renal cancer(More)
Classic mechanisms of tumor response to chemotherapy include apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. Recent studies have suggested that cellular senescence, a terminal proliferation arrest seen in vitro, may be invoked during the exposure of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. To identify markers associated specifically with the cellular senescence(More)
BACKGROUND A functioning ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is essential for a number of diverse cellular processes and maintenance of overall cellular homeostasis. The ability of proteasome inhibitors, such as Velcade, to promote extrinsic apoptotic effects illustrates the importance of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the regulation of death receptor(More)