Steven R. Schwarze

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Delivery of therapeutic proteins into tissues and across the blood-brain barrier is severely limited by the size and biochemical properties of the proteins. Here it is shown that intraperitoneal injection of the 120-kilodalton beta-galactosidase protein, fused to the protein transduction domain from the human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein, results in(More)
Several proteins can traverse biological membranes through protein transduction. Small sections of these proteins (10-16 residues long) are responsible for this. Linking these domains covalently to compounds, peptides, antisense peptide nucleic acids or 40-nm iron beads, or as in-frame fusions with full-length proteins, lets them enter any cell type in a(More)
The protein transduction domain (PTD) embedded in the HIV TAT protein (amino acids 47-57) has been shown to successfully mediate the introduction of heterologous peptides and proteins in excess of Mr 100,000 into mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo. We report here that the modeled structure of the TAT PTD is a strong amphipathic helix. On the basis of this(More)
Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a proapoptotic protein with intracellular functions in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Unexpectedly, we noted Par-4 protein is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells in culture, and by Par-4 transgenic mice that are resistant to spontaneous tumors. Short exposure to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing(More)
Cellular senescence forms a barrier that inhibits the acquisition of an immortal phenotype, a critical feature in tumorigenesis. The inactivation of multiple pathways that positively regulate senescence are required for immortalization. To identify these pathways in an unbiased manner, we performed DNA microarray analyses to assess the expression of 20,000(More)
Classic mechanisms of tumor response to chemotherapy include apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe. Recent studies have suggested that cellular senescence, a terminal proliferation arrest seen in vitro, may be invoked during the exposure of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. To identify markers associated specifically with the cellular senescence(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that male hormones (androgens) and certain forms of oxygen (reactive oxygen species) are linked to the development of prostate cancer. We hypothesized that androgens contribute to prostate carcinogenesis by increasing oxidative stress. We further hypothesized that antioxidants reduce prostate cancer risk by(More)
Cellular senescence has been proposed to be an in vitro and in vivo block that cells must overcome in order to immortalize and become tumorigenic. To characterize these pathways, we focused on changes in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and their binding partners that underlie the cell cycle arrest at senescence. As a model, we utilized normal human(More)
Drosophila melanogaster displays an age-associated increase in oxidative damage and a decrease in mitochondrial transcripts. To determine if these changes result in energy production deficiencies, we measured the electron transport system (ETS) enzyme activity, and ATP levels with age. No statistically significant influences of age on activities of(More)