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Delivery of therapeutic proteins into tissues and across the blood-brain barrier is severely limited by the size and biochemical properties of the proteins. Here it is shown that intraperitoneal injection of the 120-kilodalton beta-galactosidase protein, fused to the protein transduction domain from the human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein, results in(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions increase in abundance with age in many tissues, however, their calculated low levels (usually < 0.1%) in samples from tissue homogenates containing thousands of cells argue against physiologic significance. Through the analysis of defined numbers of cells (skeletal muscle fibers) from rhesus monkeys, we report that the(More)
Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a proapoptotic protein with intracellular functions in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Unexpectedly, we noted Par-4 protein is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells in culture, and by Par-4 transgenic mice that are resistant to spontaneous tumors. Short exposure to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing(More)
BACKGROUND A functioning ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is essential for a number of diverse cellular processes and maintenance of overall cellular homeostasis. The ability of proteasome inhibitors, such as Velcade, to promote extrinsic apoptotic effects illustrates the importance of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the regulation of death receptor(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that male hormones (androgens) and certain forms of oxygen (reactive oxygen species) are linked to the development of prostate cancer. We hypothesized that androgens contribute to prostate carcinogenesis by increasing oxidative stress. We further hypothesized that antioxidants reduce prostate cancer risk by(More)
Cellular senescence forms a barrier that inhibits the acquisition of an immortal phenotype, a critical feature in tumorigenesis. The inactivation of multiple pathways that positively regulate senescence are required for immortalization. To identify these pathways in an unbiased manner, we performed DNA microarray analyses to assess the expression of 20,000(More)
Cdc37 is a co-chaperone protein that recruits several immature client kinases to Hsp90 for proper folding. Cdc37 up-regulation is a common early event in localized human prostate cancer. Although targeted overexpression in mice leads to prostate epithelial cell hyperplasia, the effect of Cdc37 dysregulation in human prostate cells is unclear. In this study,(More)
Previous studies demonstrated that proteasome inhibition sensitizes TRAIL resistant prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via stabilization of the active p18 subunit of caspase-8. The present study investigated the impact of proteasome inhibition on caspase-8 stability, ubiquitination, trafficking, and activation in cancer cells. Using caspase-8(More)
Mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is common in gliomas, and produces D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). The full effects of IDH1 mutations on glioma biology and tumor microenvironment are unknown. We analyzed a discovery cohort of 169 World Health Organization (WHO) grade II-IV gliomas, followed by a validation cohort of 148 cases, for IDH1 mutations,(More)
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