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Few studies have examined the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in developing countries. In this study, DNA of 69 microscopy-positive human fecal samples collected from Malawi were examined by multilocus genetic analyses. From 43, 27 and 28 of the samples, the SSU rRNA, 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) and 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) genes,(More)
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ISSN 0002-9637) is a peer-reviewed journal published twelve times a year, in two volumes, by the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 60 Revere Drive, Suite 500, Northbrook, IL 60062. The journal is the leading international journal in tropical medicine. Content includes original(More)
Plasmodium falciparum parasites that are resistant to artemisinins have been detected in Southeast Asia. Resistance is associated with several polymorphisms in the parasite's K13-propeller gene. The molecular epidemiology of these artemisinin resistance genotypes in African parasite populations is unknown. We developed an assay to quantify rare(More)
Atovaquone is a new anti-malarial agent that specifically targets the cytochrome bc1 complex and inhibits parasite respiration. A growing number of failures of this drug in the treatment of malaria have been genetically linked to point mutations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. To better understand the molecular basis of atovaquone resistance in(More)
Artemisinin derivatives are first-line antimalarial drugs in Thailand. No firm evidence of clinically relevant artemisinin resistance exists. When used as monotherapy, artesunate has been associated with a high treatment failure (recrudescence) rate, which could be due to low-level artemisinin resistance. To understand the causes of recrudescence, we(More)
BACKGROUND Although maternal anaemia often stems from malaria infection during pregnancy, its effects on foetal haemoglobin levels are not straightforward. Lower-than-expected cord haemoglobin values in malarious versus non-malarious regions were noted by one review, which hypothesized they resulted from foetal immune activation to maternal malaria. This(More)
Atovaquone is a substituted 2-hydroxynaphthoquinone that is used therapeutically to treat Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and Toxoplasma gondii toxoplasmosis. It is thought to act on these organisms by inhibiting the cytochrome bc1 complex. We have examined the interaction of atovaquone with the bc1 complex isolated from(More)
Asymptomatic carriage of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax is common in both low-and high-transmission settings and represents an important reservoir of infection that needs to be targeted if malaria elimination is to succeed. Mass blood examinations (475 individuals) were conducted in two villages in Mae Hong Son, an area of endemic but(More)
Artemisinin and its derivatives are endoperoxide-containing compounds which represent a promising new class of antimalarial drugs. In the presence of intraparasitic iron, these drugs are converted into free radicals and other electrophilic intermediates which then alkylate specific malaria target proteins. Combinations of available derivatives and other(More)
The Thailand-Cambodia border is the epicenter for drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Previous studies have shown that chloroquine (CQ) and pyrimethamine resistance originated in this region and eventually spread to other Asian countries and Africa. However, there is a dearth in understanding the origin and evolution of dhps alleles associated with(More)