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The superior volume maintenance of membranous over endochondral bone has been shown in several studies and provides the basis for its preferred clinical use as an onlay grafting material in the craniofacial skeleton. The scientific rationale for this seeming embryologic advantage, however, has never been proven. Our hypothesis is that the pattern of onlay(More)
Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy as a risk factor for having a child with cleft lip/palate has been suggested by several epidemiologic studies. However, most of these studies contained small sample sizes, and a clear association between these two factors could not be established. The U.S. Natality database from 1996 and a case-control study(More)
Since its first description by Virchow in 1851, craniosynostosis has been known as a potentially serious condition resulting in premature fusion of skull sutures. Traditionally, craniosynostosis has been regarded as an event that occurs early in fetal development, resulting in a skull shape at birth that is determined by the suture or sutures involved. In(More)
Despite the widespread use of rigid fixation techniques in craniofacial surgery, there is a paucity of studies in the literature that serve to better define the reasons for the subsequent removal of plates and screws. The current study appears to be the first to attempt to assess these issues among a broad range of craniofacial surgery patients. Fifty-five(More)
BACKGROUND The psoas muscle has been shown to predict patient outcomes based on the quantification of muscle area using computed tomography (CT) scans. The accuracy of morphomic analysis on other muscles has not been clearly delineated. In this study, we determine the correlation between temporalis muscle mass, psoas muscle area, age, body mass index (BMI),(More)
OBJECT Chiari malformation (CM) Type I is frequently associated with craniosynostosis. Optimal management of CM in patients with craniosynostosis is not well-established. The goal of this study was to report on a series of pediatric patients with both craniosynostosis and CM and discuss their management. METHODS The authors searched the medical records of(More)
BACKGROUND Cranial vault remodeling (CVR) for craniosynostosis is a procedure with the potential for significant blood loss. Aminocaproic acid (ACA) has been used at our institution during CVR for its antifibrinolytic effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ACA on blood loss and transfusion rates during primary CVR. METHODS(More)
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the pathologic development of ectopic bone in soft tissues because of a local or systemic inflammatory insult, such as burn injury or trauma. In HO, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are inappropriately activated to undergo osteogenic differentiation. Through the correlation of in vitro assays and in vivo studies (dorsal scald(More)
OBJECT This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of aprotinin in reducing the need for blood transfusions in 39 children undergoing reconstructive craniofacial surgery. METHODS Two demographically similar groups--a total of 39 patients with a mean age of 1.2 +/- 1.2 years--were studied. The(More)
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a common and debilitating complication of burns, traumatic brain injuries, and musculoskeletal trauma and surgery. Although the exact mechanism of ectopic bone formation is unknown, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) capable of osteogenic differentiation are known to play an essential role. Interestingly, the prevalence of HO in(More)