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All recent studies of bird phylogeny have produced poorly resolved relationships among the orders of Neoaves, the lineage that includes most modern birds. This "bush" result suggests the possibility of an explosive and potentially unresolvable evolutionary radiation. However, simultaneous radiations of multiple lineages are thought to be rare or nonexistent(More)
This study presents a statistical test for modularity in the context of relative timing of developmental events. The test assesses whether sets of developmental events show special phylogenetic conservation of rank order. The test statistic is the correlation coefficient of developmental ranks of the N events of the hypothesized module across taxa. The null(More)
Comparative developmental biologists have proposed models to describe patterns of conserved features in vertebrate ontogeny. The hourglass model suggests evolutionary change is most difficult at an intermediate "phylotypic" stage, the adaptive penetrance model suggests change is easiest at an intermediate stage, and the early conservation model suggests(More)
Independent evolutionary lineages often display similar characteristics in comparable environments. Three kinds of historical hypotheses could explain this convergence. The first is adaptive and evolutionary: nonrandom patterns may result from analogous evolutionary responses to shared conditions. The second explanation is exaptive and ecological: species(More)
BACKGROUND Comparative studies of amniotes have been hindered by a dearth of reptilian molecular sequences. With the genomic assembly of the green anole, Anolis carolinensis available, non-avian reptilian genes can now be compared to mammalian, avian, and amphibian homologs. Furthermore, with more than 350 extant species in the genus Anolis, anoles are an(More)
One of the oldest and most pervasive ideas in comparative embryology is the perceived evolutionary conservation of early ontogeny relative to late ontogeny. Karl Von Baer first noted the similarity of early ontogeny across taxa, and Ernst Haeckel and Charles Darwin gave evolutionary interpretation to this phenomenon. In spite of a resurgence of interest in(More)
Roughly 40% of amphibian species are in decline with habitat loss, disease, and climate change being the most cited threats. Heterogeneity of extrinsic (e.g. climate) and intrinsic (e.g. local adaptations) factors across a species' range should influence population response to climate change and other threats. Here we examine relative detectability changes(More)
  • Sven E Wilson, Daniel M Butler, Neil Beck, Richard Butler, Damon Cann, Scott Cooper +22 others
  • 2004
In 1995, Beck and Katz (B&K) instructed readers of APSR on " What to do (and not to do) with time-series, cross-section data. " Even though this influential paper largely ignored the extensive literature on panel data methods, the simple B&K prescriptions rapidly became the new orthodoxy for practitioners. Our assessment of the intellectual aftermath of(More)
The evolution of the amniotic egg was one of the great evolutionary innovations in the history of life, freeing vertebrates from an obligatory connection to water and thus permitting the conquest of terrestrial environments. Among amniotes, genome sequences are available for mammals and birds, but not for non-avian reptiles. Here we report the genome(More)