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Activation of beta-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) transcription as a result of mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and/or beta-catenin genes occurs in the majority of colon tumors. An increasing number of genes, including c-myc and cyclin D1, have been implicated as targets of this pathway. We now report that the dominant negative(More)
Follicular B helper T (Tfh) cells support high affinity and long-term antibody responses. Here we found that within circulating CXCR5⁺ CD4⁺ T cells in humans and mice, the CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset has a partial Tfh effector phenotype, whereas CCR7(hi)PD-1(lo) cells have a resting phenotype. The circulating CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset was indicative of active Tfh(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The factors controlling the proliferation and differentiation of the colonic mucosa are unknown and have proved difficult to identify mainly because of a lack of in vitro methods for studying the proliferative cells of the mucosa. METHODS We have developed a novel method of preparing a viable single-cell suspension from isolated crypts(More)
Human infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 is associated with a high mortality and morbidity. H5N1 continues to transmit from poultry to the human population, raising serious concerns about its pandemic potential. Current influenza H5N1 vaccines are based upon the elicitation of a neutralizing antibody (Ab) response against the(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinases (PI3ks) are a family of lipid kinases that play a crucial role in a wide range of important cellular processes associated with malignant behavior including cell growth, migration, and survival. We have used single-strand conformational polymorphism/heteroduplex analysis to demonstrate the presence of somatic mutations in the(More)
The ferret is an excellent model for many human infectious diseases including influenza, SARS-CoV, henipavirus and pneumococcal infections. The ferret is also used to study cystic fibrosis and various cancers, as well as reproductive biology and physiology. However, the range of reagents available to measure the ferret immune response is very limited. To(More)
The term cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) encompasses the spectrum of diseases characterized by a monoclonal proliferation of malignant T lymphocytes predominantly of the mature T-helper cell type. These include mycosis fungoides, which is usually localized to the skin for many years, and the Sezary syndrome, the leukemic variant in which characteristic,(More)
As part of influenza pandemic preparedness, policy decisions need to be made about how best to utilize vaccines once they are manufactured. Since H5N1 avian influenza virus has the potential to initiate the next human pandemic, isolates of this subtype have been used for the production and testing of prepandemic vaccines. Clinical trials of such vaccines(More)
A MoAb RMAC8 was generated by immunizing Balb/c mice with cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVE). The molecule recognized had a mol. wt of 180 kD non-reduced, 95 kD after reduction and 66 kD in its reduced and N-deglycosylated form. Sequential immunoprecipitation studies with the MoAb 44G4, which recognizes the O- and N-glycosylated(More)